Parathyroid Hormone Activates Phospholipase C (PLC)-Independent Protein Kinase C Signaling Pathway via Protein Kinase A (PKA)-Dependent Mechanism: A New Defined Signaling Route Would Induce Alternative Consideration to Previous Conceptions
Guojun Tong, Yue Meng, Song Hao, Shaoyu Hu, Youhua He, Wenjuan Yan, Dehong Yang
(Department of Spinal Surgery, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong, China (mainland))
Med Sci Monit 2017; 23:1896-1906
Parathyroid hormone (PTH) is an effective anti-osteoporosis agent, after binding to its receptor PTHR1, several signaling pathways, including cAMP/protein kinase A (PKA) and phospholipase C (PLC)/protein kinase C (PKC), are initiated through G proteins; with the cAMP/PKA pathway as the major pathway. Earlier studies have reported that PTHR1 might also activate PKC via a PLC-independent mechanism, but this pathway remains unclear.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: In HEK293 cells, cAMP accumulation was measured with ELISA and PKC was measured with fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) analysis using CKAR plasmid. In MC3T3-E1 cells, real-time PCR was performed to examine gene expressions. Then assays for cell apoptosis, cell differentiation, alkaline phosphatase activity, and mineralization were performed.
RESULTS: The FRET analysis found that PTH(1–34), [G1,R19]PTH(1–34) (GR(1–34), and [G1,R19]PTH(1–28) (GR(1–28) were all activated by PKC. The PKC activation ability of GR(1–28) was blocked by cAMP inhibitor (Rp-cAMP) and rescued with the addition of active PKA-α and PKA-β. The PKC activation ability of GR(1–34) was partially inhibited by Rp-cAMP. In MC3T3-E1 cells, gene expressions of ALP, CITED1, NR4a2, and OSX that was regulated by GR(1–28) were significantly changed by the pan-PKC inhibitor Go6983. After pretreatment with Rp-cAMP, the gene expressions of ALP, CITED1, and OPG were differentially regulated by GR(1–28) or GR(1–34), and the difference was blunted by Go6983. PTH(1–34), GR(1–28), and GR(1–34) significantly decreased early apoptosis and augmented osteoblastic differentiation in accordance with the activities of PKA and PKC.
CONCLUSIONS: PLC-independent PKC activation induced by PTH could be divided into two potential mechanisms: one was PKA-dependent and associated with PTH(1–28); the other was PKA-independent and associated with PTH(29–34). We also found that PTH could activate PLC-independent PKC via PKA-dependent mechanisms.
Keywords: Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase RIalpha Subunit, Parathyroid Hormone, Phosphoinositide Phospholipase C, Protein Kinase C