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Percutaneous Balloon Kyphoplasty in Treatment of Painful Osteoporotic Occult Vertebral Fracture: A Retrospective Study of 89 Cases

Zhi-Yong Sun, Xue-Feng Li, Huan Zhao, Jun Lin, Zhong-Lai Qian, Zhi-Ming Zhang, Hui-Lin Yang

(Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu, China (mainland))

Med Sci Monit 2017; 23:1682-1690

DOI: 10.12659/MSM.903997

Published: 2017-04-07

BACKGROUND: The definition of a vertebral fracture is usually based on the presence of a deformation of the vertebral body and this can be misleading in the presence of a fracture without radiologic collapse with the definition of occult osteoporotic vertebral fractures (OOVFs). STIR sequence of MRI images showing hyperintensity signal was the most confirmative screening examination used to determine the presence of painful OOVFs. To date, clinical management of OOVFs has been rarely discussed.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: Between 2011 and 2013, 89 patients suffering from painful OOVFs underwent 142 percutaneous balloon kyphoplasty (PKP) procedures. Outcome data (mean variation of anterior and middle vertebral body height, visual analog scale [VAS] scores, Oswestry Disability Index [ODI] scores, and SF-36 scores) were recorded preoperatively, postoperatively, and at 1 month, 6 months, and 2 year after treatment, to evaluate the results.
RESULTS: We successfully treated 89 patients (142 vertebral bodies) with PKP. Cement leakages were observed in 12 (8.45%) treated vertebral bodies and there were 5 new adjacent vertebral fractures during the follow-up period. The mean variation of anterior and middle vertebral body height changed from 96.5±3.4% preoperatively to 97.2±2.5% postoperatively (p>0.05) and from 96.3±2.8% preoperatively to 97.9±3.1% postoperatively (p>0.05), respectively. The mean VAS scores were reduced significantly from pre-surgery to post-surgery (8.3±1.2 to 2.9±0.7; p<0.05), as was the ODI score (76.4±12.5 to 26.7±5.6; p<0.05). The SF-36 scores, including Bodily Pain (BF), Vitality (VT), Physical Function (PF), and Social Functioning (SF), all showed notable improvement (P<0.05). These variations were maintained during the 2-year follow-up period.
CONCLUSIONS: PKP is a safe and effective method in the treatment of painful OOVFs.

Keywords: kyphoplasty, Osteoporotic Fractures, Spinal Fractures, vertebroplasty