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Characteristics of fulminant type 1 diabetes mellitus

Mariko Sue, Aya Yoshihara, Takatoshi Otani, Yasuyo Tsuchida, Mariko Higa, Naoki Hiroi

Med Sci Monit 2008; 14(10): CS97-101

ID: 869396

Background: Fulminant type 1 diabetes is characterized by acute onset and rapid development of ketoacidosis.
Material and Method: We present three cases of fulminant type 1 diabetes we experienced at our hospital. All three patients showed extremely high levels of plasma glucose, low HbA1c levels, positivity for urinary ketone bodies, ketoacidosis, and low C-peptide excretion. Flu-like symptoms were noted a few days before hospitalization, and increases in the WBC and CRP levels were observed. Interestingly, case 1 was negative for anti-GAD antibody at the time of hospitalization but became positive 22 days later. Moreover, this patient reverted to being negative for anti-GAD antibody 93 days later. Cases 1 and 3 were positive for HLA-DR4 and HLA-DR9, and Case 2 was positive for HLA-DR4. All three individuals had flu-like symptoms and showed inflammatory markers in the blood.
Conclusions: Although autoimmune abnormalities are not usually linked with fulminant type 1 diabetes, the conclusion drawn from the present study is that patients with this disease should be monitored on several different occasions for autoimmune antibodies.

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