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Vascularization Potential of Electrospun Poly(L-Lactide-co-Caprolactone) Scaffold: The Impact for Tissue Engineering

Arkadiusz Jundziłł, Marta Pokrywczyńska, Jan Adamowicz, Tomasz Kowalczyk, Maciej Nowacki, Magdalena Bodnar, Andrzej Marszałek, Małgorzata Frontczak-Baniewicz, Grzegorz Mikułowski, Tomasz Kloskowski, James Gatherwright, Tomasz Drewa

(Chair of Urology, Department of Regenerative Medicine, Collegium Medicum, Nicolaus Copernicus University, Bydgoszcz, Poland)

Med Sci Monit 2017; 23:1540-1551

DOI: 10.12659/MSM.899659

BACKGROUND: Electrospun nanofibers have widespread putative applications in the field of regenerative medicine and tissue engineering. When compared to naturally occurring collagen matrices, electrospun nanofiber scaffolds have two distinct advantages: they do not induce a foreign body reaction and they are not at risk for biological contamination. However, the exact substrate, structure, and production methods have yet to be defined.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: In the current study, tubular-shaped poly(L-lactide-co-caprolactone) (PLCL) constructs produced using electrospinning technology were evaluated for their potential application in the field of tissue regeneration in two separate anatomic locations: the skin and the abdomen. The constructs were designed to have an internal diameter of 3 mm and thickness of 200 μm. Using a rodent model, 20 PLCL tubular constructs were surgically implanted in the abdominal cavity and subcutaneously. The constructs were then evaluated histologically using electron microscopy at 6 weeks post-implantation.
RESULTS: Histological evaluation and analysis using scanning electron microscopy showed that pure scaffolds by themselves were able to induce angiogenesis after implantation in the rat model. Vascularization was observed in both tested groups; however, better results were obtained after intraperitoneal implantation. Formation of more and larger vessels that migrated inside the scaffold was observed after implantation into the peritoneum. In this group no evidence of inflammation and better integration of scaffold with host tissue were noticed. Subcutaneous implantation resulted in more fibrotic reaction, and differences in cell morphology were also observed between the two tested groups.
CONCLUSIONS: This study provides a standardized evaluation of a PLCL conduit structure in two different anatomic locations, demonstrating the excellent ability of the structure to achieve vascularization. Functional, histological, and mechanical data clearly indicate prospective clinical utilization of PLCL in critical size defect regeneration.

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