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Potential Pathogenesis and Biomarkers of Kidney Cancer-Related Stroke

Haihong Jiang, Chao Qin, Daobin Cheng, Qiuhong Lu, Gelun Huang, Dacheng Wang, Hong Yang, Zhijian Liang

(Department of Neurology, First Affiliated Hospital of Guangxi Medical University, Nanning, Guangxi, China (mainland))

Med Sci Monit 2017; 23:2292-2298

DOI: 10.12659/MSM.904710


BACKGROUND: Stroke risk and stroke recurrence are increased in cancer patients, but the pathogenesis and biomarkers of kidney cancer-related stroke (KCS) are generally unclear. The aim of the present research was to investigate the pathogenesis and plasma biomarkers of kidney cancer-related stroke.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: A retrospective review was conducted on acute stroke patients with kidney cancer (KC) who were admitted to the hospital between January 2006 and December 2015. A total of 106 patients with KCS (active KC patients with acute stroke but without conventional vascular risks) were identified. In addition, 106 age- and sex-matched patients with KC alone were recruited.
RESULTS: KCS patients had higher plasma D-dimer, cancer antigen (CA) 125, and CEA levels and greater proteinuria levels than did KC patients. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that the risk of stroke in patients with KC increased independently by 0.8% (odds ratio [OR] 1.008; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.002, 1.013; p=0.004) with a 1 ng/mL increase in D-dimer levels, by 1.2% (OR 1.012; 95% CI 1.007, 1.018; p=0.000) with a 1 U/mL increase in CA125, by 2.5% (OR 1.025; 95% CI 1.012, 1.038; p=0.000) with a 1 U/mL increase in CEA by 1.4% (OR 1.014; 95% CI 1.005, 1.024; p=0.004) with a 1 mg increase in urine protein in 24 hours.
CONCLUSIONS: Elevated plasma D-dimer, CA125 and CEA levels, and increased urine protein levels might lead to hypercoagulability and then KCS; however, they may also be biomarkers of KCS.

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