01 November 2020>: Review ArticlesFuzhou Wang 1ABCDEF , Richard M. Kream 2ABCDEF , George B. Stefano 23ABCDEF*
Med Sci Monit 2020; 26:e928996
Figure 1 Respiratory injury associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection. SARS-CoV-2 induces inflammatory changes in all 3 main locations of the respiratory system from the trachea (A), to the bronchi (B), and the alveolar sacs (C). The respiratory system will experience acute inflammation following the pro-inflammatory ‘cytokine storm,’ followed by long-term fibrotic changes. Pulmonary fibrosis is associated with the upregulation of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) and chronic inflammation.