Logo Medical Science Monitor

Call: +1.631.470.9640
Mon - Fri 10:00 am - 02:00 pm EST

Contact Us

Logo Medical Science Monitor Logo Medical Science Monitor Logo Medical Science Monitor

01 November 2020: Review Articles

Long-Term Respiratory and Neurological Sequelae of COVID-19

Fuzhou Wang 1ABCDEF , Richard M. Kream 2ABCDEF , George B. Stefano 23ABCDEF*

DOI: 10.12659/MSM.928996

Med Sci Monit 2020; 26:e928996

Figure 1 Respiratory injury associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection. SARS-CoV-2 induces inflammatory changes in all 3 main locations of the respiratory system from the trachea (A), to the bronchi (B), and the alveolar sacs (C). The respiratory system will experience acute inflammation following the pro-inflammatory ‘cytokine storm,’ followed by long-term fibrotic changes. Pulmonary fibrosis is associated with the upregulation of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) and chronic inflammation.

Your Privacy

We use cookies to ensure the functionality of our website, to personalize content and advertising, to provide social media features, and to analyze our traffic. If you allow us to do so, we also inform our social media, advertising and analysis partners about your use of our website, You can decise for yourself which categories you you want to deny or allow. Please note that based on your settings not all functionalities of the site are available. View our privacy policy.

Medical Science Monitor eISSN: 1643-3750
Medical Science Monitor eISSN: 1643-3750