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25 February 2011

Evaluation of nosocomial infections and risk factors in critically ill patients

Burcin OzerABCDEF, Buket Cagla Ozbakıs AkkurtBCDE, Nizami DuranBDE, Yusuf OnlenBCD, Lutfu SavasBCD, Selim TurhanogluBCD

DOI: 10.12659/MSM.881434

Med Sci Monit 2011; 17(3): PH17-22

Abstract

Background: Nosocomial infections are one of the most serious complications in intensive care unit patients because they lead to high morbidity, mortality, length of stay and cost. The aim of this study was to determine the nosocomial infections, risk factors, pathogens and the antimicrobial susceptibilities of them in intensive care unit of a university hospital.
Material/Methods: The patients were observed prospectively by the unit-directed active surveillance method based on patient and the laboratory.
Results: 20.1% of the patients developed a total of 40 intensive care unit-acquired infections for a total of 988 patient-days. The infection sites were the lower respiratory tract, urinary tract, bloodstream, wound, and the central nervous system. The respiratory deficiency, diabetes mellitus, usage of steroid and antibiotics were found as the risk factors. The most common pathogens were Enterobacteriaceae, Staphylococcus aureus, Candida species. No vancomycin resistance was determined in Gram positive bacteria. Imipenem and meropenem were found to be the most effective antibiotics to Enterobacteriaceae.
Conclusions: Hospital infection rate in intensive care unit is not very high. The diabetes mellitus, length of stay, usage of steroids, urinary catheter and central venous catheter were determined as the risk factors by the final logistic regression analysis. These data, which were collected from a newly established intensive care unit of a university hospital, are important in order to predict the infections and the antimicrobial resistance profile that will develop in the future.

Keywords: Logistic Models, Cross Infection - microbiology, Critical Illness - epidemiology, Aged, 80 and over, Adolescent, Risk Factors, Turkey - epidemiology, young adult

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Medical Science Monitor eISSN: 1643-3750
Medical Science Monitor eISSN: 1643-3750