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21 June 2011

Changes in bacterial resistance patterns in children with urinary tract infections on antimicrobial prophylaxis at University Hospital in Split

Tanja IlićABEF, Sanda GračanABEF, Adela ArapovićEFG, Vesna ČapkunCD, Mirna Šubat-DežulovićDE, Marijan SaragaABDEFG

DOI: 10.12659/MSM.881845

Med Sci Monit 2011; 17(7): CR355-361

Abstract

Background: We assessed prevalence and resistance of uropathogens on antimicrobial agents (AA) from urine cultures (UC) in children hospitalized with urinary tract infections (UTI) at University Hospital in Split.
Material/Methods: During the 7-year period, children hospitalized only once with UTI alone were compared to those repeatedly hospitalized, and who received long-term antimicrobial prophylaxis (LTAP), as well as those with associated anomalies of the urinary system (US).
Results: E. coli was the most frequent isolate (67.7%) with resistance to ampicillin by 69.5%, amoxicillin/clavulonic acid by 3.5%, cephalexin by 6.6%, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) by 27.5%, and nitrofurantoin by 0.4%. For other uropathogens, AA resistance rates were the following: 64.3%, 5.8%, 10.5%, 21.3%, and 7.9%. The high or increasing resistance to TMP-SMX is characterized by all uropathogens. Patients with anomalies of US showed a lower prevalence of E. coli and Enterococcus sp., but a higher prevalence of Pseudomonas sp., ESBL-producing E. coli and Klebsiella sp. than those without US anomalies. Repeatedly hospitalized patients showed a lower prevalence of E. coli, but a higher prevalence of Pseudomonas sp. and Klebsiella sp. than patients hospitalized only once. Both groups displayed significantly less resistance of Enterococcus sp. In patients receiving LTAP before hospitalization, E. coli was significantly more resistant to ampicillin, amoxicillin/clavulonic acid and TMP/SMX than in those without LTAP.
Conclusions: Based on our results, we recommend excluding ampicillin altogether, and reconsideration of further use of TMP-SMX, as well as use of nitrofurantoin, cephalexin and amoxicillin/clavulonic acid for LTAP in our region.

Keywords: Urinary Tract Infections - microbiology, Prevalence, Pseudomonas - isolation & purification, Klebsiella - isolation & purification, Enterococcus - isolation & purification, Drug Resistance, Multiple, Croatia - epidemiology, Child, Antibiotic Prophylaxis - methods, Anti-Infective Agents - pharmacology, Uropathogenic Escherichia coli - isolation & purification

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Medical Science Monitor eISSN: 1643-3750