22 August 2011
Natural antioxidant dihydroxybenzyl alcohol blocks ritonavir-induced endothelial dysfunction in porcine pulmonary arteries and human endothelial cellsSarah M. WeakleyABCDEF, Jun JiangABCD, Jianming LuABCD, Xinwen WangABCD, Peter H. LinAD, Qizhi YaoAD, Changyi ChenABCDEFG
Med Sci Monit 2011; 17(9): BR235-241
Background: Patients with HIV have an increased incidence of pulmonary artery hypertension. This study was designed to determine if the naturally occurring antioxidant dihydroxybenzyl alcohol (DHBA) could counteract the deleterious effects of ritonavir (RTV), an HIV-protease inhibitor known to impair endothelial function and increase oxidative stress.
Material/Methods: Antioxidant assays were performed on DHBA in a cell free system. Glutathione (GSH) levels were measured in human pulmonary artery endothelial cells (HPAEC) to determine the effect of DHBA on the level of oxidative stress in cells treated with RTV. Myograph analysis was performed on porcine pulmonary artery (PA) rings after treatment with RTV and/or DHBA. Likewise, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was assessed in porcine PA rings after RTV +/– DHBA using a lucigenin reaction. Immunohistochemical staining for endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) was also performed in porcine PAs treated as above.
Results: DHBA demonstrated significant antioxidant activity in a cell free system that surpassed that of vitamin C. Also, treatment with DHBA reduced RTV-induced reduction in endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation and eNOS staining and increased superoxide anion levels. Meanwhile, there was a reversal in RTV-induced oxidative stress leading to reduced GSH levels in HPAECs after treatment with DHBA.
Conclusions: These findings suggest that the naturally occurring antioxidant DHBA reduces the impairment of vasomotor functions caused by RTV in porcine PAs and reduces oxidative stress caused by RTV in HPAEC and porcine PA rings. This study indicates that DHBA may have clinical applications in the prevention or treatment of antiretroviral drugs-associated vascular complications in patients with HIV.
Keywords: Oxidative Stress - drug effects, Pulmonary Artery - physiopathology, Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III - metabolism, Glutathione - metabolism, Free Radical Scavengers - pharmacology, Endothelium, Vascular - physiopathology, Endothelial Cells - metabolism, Down-Regulation - drug effects, Cell-Free System, Benzyl Alcohols - pharmacology, Antioxidants - pharmacology, Ritonavir - adverse effects, Superoxides - metabolism, Sus scrofa
01 February 2023 : EditorialEditorial: The XBB.1.5 (‘Kraken’) Subvariant of Omicron SARS-CoV-2 and its Rapid Global Spread
Med Sci Monit 2023; 29:e939580
19 January 2023 : Clinical ResearchEvaluation of Health-Related Quality of Life and Mental Health in 729 Medical Students in Indonesia During ...
Med Sci Monit In Press; DOI: 10.12659/MSM.938892
19 January 2023 : Clinical ResearchDetermining the Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Dental Care in the Serbian Adult Population: An Online Q...
Med Sci Monit 2023; 29:e939238
27 December 2022 : Clinical ResearchEffect of Physiotherapy to Correct Rounded Shoulder Posture in 30 Patients During the COVID-19 Pandemic in ...
Med Sci Monit 2022; 28:e938926
03 Feb 2023 : Clinical ResearchTreatment of Gingival Recession Defects with Pouch and Tunnel Technique Using Connective Tissue Graft and L...
Med Sci Monit In Press; DOI: 10.12659/MSM.938865
02 Feb 2023 : Clinical ResearchOnline Questionnaire-Based Study to Evaluate the Attitudes and Use of Rubber Dental Dams by Saudi Dental Pr...
Med Sci Monit In Press; DOI: 10.12659/MSM.938672
02 Feb 2023 : Database AnalysisPrognostic-Related Biomarkers in Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma Correlating with Immune Infiltrates Based...
Med Sci Monit In Press; DOI: 10.12659/MSM.938785
Most Viewed Current Articles
13 Nov 2021 : Clinical ResearchAcceptance of COVID-19 Vaccination and Its Associated Factors Among Cancer Patients Attending the Oncology ...
Med Sci Monit 2021; 27:e932788
30 Dec 2021 : Clinical ResearchRetrospective Study of Outcomes and Hospitalization Rates of Patients in Italy with a Confirmed Diagnosis o...
Med Sci Monit 2021; 27:e935379
08 Mar 2022 : Review articleA Review of the Potential Roles of Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Pharmacological Approaches for the Man...
Med Sci Monit 2022; 28:e936292