01 October 2011
Reciprocal regulation of cellular nitric oxide formation by nitric oxide synthase and nitrite reductasesGeorge B. Stefano, Richard M. Kream
Med Sci Monit 2011; 17(10): RA221-226
ABSTRACT: Our mini-review focuses on dual regulation of cellular nitric oxide (NO) signaling pathways by traditionally characterized enzymatic formation from L-arginine via the actions of NO synthases (NOS) and by enzymatic reduction of available cellular nitrite pools by a diverse class of cytosolic and mitochondrial nitrite reductases. Nitrite is a major metabolic product of NO and is found in all cell and tissue types that utilize NO signaling processes. Xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) has been previously characterized as a housekeeping enzyme responsible for cellular uric acid formation via enzymatic conversion of hypoxanthine and xanthine. It has become apparent that XOR possesses multi-functional enzymatic activities outside the realm of xanthine metabolism and a small but significant literature also established a compelling functional association between administered sodium nitrite, XOR activation, and pharmacologically characterized NO transductive effects in positive cardiovascular function enhanced pulmonary perfusion, and protection against ischemia/reperfusion injury and hypoxic damage and oxidative stress. Similar positive vascular and cellular effects were observed to be functionally associated with mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase and cytochrome c/cytochrome c oxidase. The profound implications of a reciprocal regulatory mechanism responsible for cytosolic and mitochondrial NO production are discussed below.
Keywords: Nitric Oxide Synthase - metabolism, Nitrite Reductases - metabolism, Nitric Oxide - biosynthesis, Myocardial Perfusion Imaging - methods, Models, Biological, Mitochondria - metabolism, Electron Transport Complex IV, Cytosol - metabolism, Arginine, aldehyde dehydrogenase, Signal Transduction - physiology, Xanthine Dehydrogenase - metabolism
01 August 2022 : EditorialEditorial: Long-Term Effects of Symptomatic and Asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 Infection in Children and the Changing Pathogenesis of Common Childhood Viruses Driven by the COVID-19 Pandemic
Med Sci Monit 2022; 28:e937927
12 Aug 2022 : Clinical ResearchRisk Factors and Pathogen Spectrum in Continuous Ambulatory Peritoneal Dialysis-Associated Peritonitis: A S...
Med Sci Monit In Press; DOI: 10.12659/MSM.937112
11 Aug 2022 : Meta-AnalysisOptimal Surgical Treatment Method for Anterior Cruciate Ligament Rupture: Results from a Network Meta-Analysis
Med Sci Monit In Press; DOI: 10.12659/MSM.937118
10 Aug 2022 : Review articleProgrammed Cell Death in Diabetic Nephropathy: A Review of Apoptosis, Autophagy, and Necroptosis
Med Sci Monit In Press; DOI: 10.12659/MSM.937766
Most Viewed Current Articles
30 Dec 2021 : Clinical ResearchRetrospective Study of Outcomes and Hospitalization Rates of Patients in Italy with a Confirmed Diagnosis o...
Med Sci Monit 2021; 27:e935379
13 Nov 2021 : Clinical ResearchAcceptance of COVID-19 Vaccination and Its Associated Factors Among Cancer Patients Attending the Oncology ...
Med Sci Monit 2021; 27:e932788
08 Mar 2022 : Review articleA Review of the Potential Roles of Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Pharmacological Approaches for the Man...
Med Sci Monit 2022; 28:e936292