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01 February 2012

Periodontal microcirculation in diabetics: An in vivo non-invasive analysis by means of videocapillaroscopy

Giuseppe Alessandro ScardinaABDE, Antonino CacioppoBCD, Pietro MessinaAG

DOI: 10.12659/MSM.882456

Med Sci Monit 2012; 18(2): CR58-64

Abstract

Background: Diabetes mellitus is today considered a society-wide disease of a chronic/degenerative nature. Among the secondary effects of diabetes, the one that interests the dental surgeon most is diabetic parodontopathy. The aim of this study was to underline and objectify microcirculatory variations at a periodontal mucous level in type 2 diabetics.
Material/Methods: The study enrolled 80 subjects: 40 subjects with a diagnosis of diabetes mellitus type II (18 males and 22 females, between 44 and 85 years of age); and 40 healthy subjects (17 males and 23 females, between 44 and 78 years of age). All the subjects, both diabetic and healthy, were submitted to a videocapillaroscopic examination of the mucosa of the oral cavity.
Results: The measurements concerning the density (expressed in the number of loops/mm2) of the capillary loops presented differences between the healthy subjects and the diabetic subjects. The average periodontal capillary density (DC-P) was clearly superior in diabetic subjects (35.62±10.40 n°loop/mm2) compared to healthy subjects (17.55±3.88 n°loop/mm2). The statistical analysis was performed by means of the Mann Whitney test. The value of P (p=0.000000986), well below the level of significance, demonstrates the high significance of the results obtained.
Conclusions: The increase in capillary density could suggest the presence of active inflammatory phenomena or, more probably, a tendency to a greater susceptibility to inflammatory phenomena. Ultimately, this study shows that there is some peripheral damage to microcirculation at the masticatory mucous level in diabetic subjects and that such alterations can be instrumentally objectified and quantified through the videocapillaroscopic method.

Keywords: Microcirculation, Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 - physiopathology, Aged, 80 and over, Periodontium - blood supply

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Medical Science Monitor eISSN: 1643-3750
Medical Science Monitor eISSN: 1643-3750