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23 February 2015 : Clinical Research  

Do Pregnancy, Postpartum Period and Lactation Predispose to Recurrent Toxoplasmic Retinochoroiditis?

Joanna Brydak-GodowskaBDEF, Piotr Karol BorkowskiABDEF, Daniel RabczenkoCDF, Joanna Moneta-WielgośBDEF, Dariusz KęcikDG

DOI: 10.12659/MSM.892220

Med Sci Monit 2015; 21:582-584


BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was a statistical analysis of the possible effects of pregnancy, postpartum period, and lactation on increased risk for reactivation of toxoplasmic retinochoroiditis.

MATERIAL AND METHODS: A retrospective study was undertaken of the clinical records of 661 patients referred with the diagnosis of acute toxoplasmic retinochoroiditis to the Department of Zoonoses and Tropical Diseases, Medical University of Warsaw and to the Department of Ophthalmology, Medical University of Warsaw in the years 1994–2014. This group of inpatients consisted of 213 women of child-bearing age (18 to 40 years). Reactivation of toxoplasmic retinochoroiditis was observed in 24 women aged 15 to 39 years who were pregnant, in the postpartum period, or lactating. To compare the rate of the relapses in pregnant/lactating patients vs. non-pregnant/non-lactating patients, the Fisher exact test was used. Calculations were performed with WinPepi software (Abramson JH (2004) WINPEPI (PEPI-for-Windows) for epidemiologists. Epidemiologic Perspectives & Innovations, 2005, 1: 6).

RESULTS: A total of 28 reactivations of toxoplasmic retinochoroiditis were observed (16 episodes in pregnancy, 4 in the postpartum period, and 8 during lactation) in 24 women aged 15 to 39 years. In 3 women, multiple episodes were reported (in early pregnancy and the postpartum period in 2 women, and during 2 pregnancies and lactation in 1 woman). Statistical analysis showed that the risk of an episode of toxoplasmic retinochoroiditis is 7.4-fold higher in pregnancy compared to the non-pregnant/non-lactating women (p<0.0001).

CONCLUSIONS: Women of childbearing age with toxoplasma ocular lesions should be informed by their doctors about possible active recurrences during pregnancy and should be followed carefully by an ophthalmologist when pregnant.

Keywords: Choroiditis - epidemiology, Adolescent, Disease Susceptibility, Incidence, Lactation, Poland - epidemiology, Postpartum Period, Pregnancy, Recurrence, Retinal Diseases - epidemiology, Toxoplasmosis, Ocular - epidemiology, young adult



12 September 2022 : Editorial  

Editorial: Treatment with Dual Incretin Receptor Agonists to Maintain Normal Glucose Levels May Also Maintain Normal Weight and Control Metabolic Dysfunction-Associated Fatty Liver Disease (MAFLD)

Ana Luisa Ordóñez-Vázquez, Sofía Murúa Beltrán-Gall, Shreya C. Pal, Nahum Méndez-Sánchez
Liver Research Unit, Medica Sur Clinic Foundation, Mexico City, Mexico

DOI: 10.12659/MSM.938365

Med Sci Monit 2022; 28:e938365


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Med Sci Monit In Press; DOI: 10.12659/MSM.938532  

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Med Sci Monit In Press; DOI: 10.12659/MSM.938091  

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Med Sci Monit In Press; DOI: 10.12659/MSM.937862  

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Med Sci Monit In Press; DOI: 10.12659/MSM.937718  

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Medical Science Monitor eISSN: 1643-3750
Medical Science Monitor eISSN: 1643-3750