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22 May 2015 : Review article  

Hypoxia defined as a Common Culprit/Initiation Factor in Mitochondrial-Mediated Proinflammatory Processes

George B. StefanoAEF, Richard M. KreamAEF

DOI: 10.12659/MSM.894437

Med Sci Monit 2015; 21:1478-1484

Abstract

In mammals and invertebrates, the activities of neuro- and immuno-competent cells, e.g., glia, which are present in nervous tissues, are deemed of critical importance to normative neuronal function. The responsiveness of invertebrate and vertebrate immuno-competent glia to a common set of signal molecules, such as nitric oxide and endogenous morphine, is functionally linked to physiologically driven innate immunological and neuronal activities. Importantly, the presence of a common, evolutionarily conserved, set of signal molecules in comparative animal groups strongly suggests an expansive intermediate metabolic profile dependent on high output mitochondrial ATP production and utilization. Normative bidirectional neural-immune communication across invertebrate and vertebrate species requires common anatomical and biochemical substrates and pathways involved in energy production and mitochondrial integrity. Within this closed-loop system, abnormal perturbation of the respective tissue functions will have profound ramifications in functionally altering associated nervous and vascular systems and it is highly likely that the initial trigger to the induction of a physiologically debilitating pro-inflammatory state is a micro-environmental hypoxic event. This is surmised by the need for an unwavering constant oxygen supply. In this case, temporal perturbations of normative oxygen tension may be tolerated for short, but not extended, periods and ischemic/hypoxic perturbations in oxygen delivery represent significant physiological challenges to overall cellular and multiple organ system viability. Hence, hypoxic triggering of multiple pro-inflammatory events, if not corrected, will promote pathophysiological amplification leading to a deleterious cascade of bio-senescent cellular and molecular signaling pathways, which converge to markedly impair mitochondrial energy utilization and ATP production.

Keywords: Adenosine Triphosphate - biosynthesis, Biological Evolution, Cell Aging, Cell Hypoxia - physiology, Cellular Microenvironment, Cytokines - secretion, Energy Metabolism, Gene Expression Regulation, Immunity, Innate, Immunocompetence, Inflammation - physiopathology, Invertebrates - physiology, Microglia - physiology, Mitochondria - physiology, Models, Biological, Neuroimmunomodulation - physiology, Nitric Oxide - physiology, Nitrites - metabolism, Opioid Peptides - metabolism, Vertebrates - physiology

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Medical Science Monitor eISSN: 1643-3750
Medical Science Monitor eISSN: 1643-3750