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24 December 2015 : Clinical Research  

Urinary Kidney Injury Molecules in Children with Iron-Deficiency Anemia

Ali GüneşACDEF, Aydın EceACE, Fesih AktarBD, İlhan TanAD, Murat SökerBD, Duran KarabelBD, Hasan BalıkBDF, Ünal UlucaACF, Velat ŞenABC, İlyas YolbaşBD

DOI: 10.12659/MSM.896794

Med Sci Monit 2015; 21:4023-4029

Abstract

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate the urine levels of human kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1), neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (NAG), and liver-type fatty acid-binding protein (L-FABP) in children with iron-deficiency anemia (IDA).

MATERIAL AND METHODS: Thirty-five children with IDA and 32 matched healthy controls were recruited. We assessed complete blood count, serum iron, iron-binding capacity, ferritin, serum levels of urea, creatinine (Cr), sodium (Na), potassium (K), calcium (Ca), and glucose levels. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was calculated. Urinary NAG, NGAL, KIM-1, and L-FABP were measured and divided by urine creatinine for comparisons.

RESULTS: There were no significant differences in serum urea, Cr, or eGFR between the IDA group and the control group (p>0.05, for all). IDA patients had significantly higher urine NGAL/Cr, L-FABP/Cr, KIM-1/Cr, and NAG/Cr compared with the control group (p<0.05). There were significant negative correlations between hemoglobin, hematocrit, red blood cell count, and urine NGAL/Cr, NAG/Cr, L-FABP/Cr, KIM-1/Cr levels (p<0.05).

CONCLUSIONS: Higher urinary kidney injury molecule levels in IDA patients suggest a possible subclinical renal injury in pediatric IDA patients whose renal functions and serum electrolytes were normal.

Keywords: Acetylglucosaminidase - urine, Acute-Phase Proteins - urine, Anemia, Iron-Deficiency - urine, Biomarkers - urine, Case-Control Studies, Child, Child, Preschool, Creatinine - blood, Electrolytes - blood, Fatty Acid-Binding Proteins - urine, Hemoglobins - metabolism, Kidney Diseases - urine, Kidney Function Tests, Lipocalins - urine, Membrane Glycoproteins - urine, Proto-Oncogene Proteins - urine, Receptors, Virus

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Medical Science Monitor eISSN: 1643-3750
Medical Science Monitor eISSN: 1643-3750