22 March 2020 : Review article
Med Sci Monit 2020; 26:e921040
Circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) describes the fragmented DNA released from tumor cells into the blood. The ctDNA may have the same genetic changes as the primary tumor. Currently, ctDNA has become a popular biomarker for diagnosis, treatment, real-time clinical response monitoring, and prognosis, for solid tumors. Detection of ctDNA is minimally invasive, and repeat sampling can easily be performed. However, due to its low quality and short DNA fragment length, ctDNA detection still faces challenges and requires highly sensitive analytical techniques. Recently, liquid biopsies for the analysis of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) and circulating tumor-derived exosomes have been studied, and nanotechnology techniques have rapidly developed. Compared to traditional analytical methods, these nanotechnology-based platforms have the advantages of sensitivity, multiplex detection, simplicity, miniaturization, and automation, which support their potential use in clinical practice. This review aims to discuss the recent nanotechnological strategies for ctDNA analysis and the design of reliable techniques for ctDNA detection and to identify the potential clinical applications.
Keywords: Nanomedicine, Nanotechnology, Circulating Tumor DNA, Liquid Biopsy, nanomaterials, Biomarkers, Tumor, DNA, Neoplasm, Early Detection of Cancer, Neoplasms, Neoplastic Cells, Circulating
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