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20 January 2023 : Clinical Research  

[In Press] Perfusate Neutrophil Gelatinase-Associated Lipocalin, Kidney Injury Molecular-1, Liver-Type Fatty Acid Binding Protein, and Interleukin-18 as Potential Biomarkers to Predict Delayed Graft Function and Long-Term Prognosis in Kidney Transplant Recipients: A Single-Center Retrospective Study

Zejia Sun1AEF, Zihao Gao1ACE, Xin Li1ABC, Xiang Zheng1BD, Wei Wang1AEG, Peng Qiao1AEF

DOI: 10.12659/MSM.938758

Med Sci Monit In Press; DOI: 10.12659/MSM.938758  

Available online: 2023-01-20, In Press, Corrected Proof

Publication in the "In-Press" formula aims at speeding up the public availability of the pending manuscript while waiting for the final publication. The assigned DOI number is active and citable. The availability of the article in the Medline, PubMed and PMC databases as well as Web of Science will be obtained after the final publication according to the journal schedule


Delayed graft function (DGF) caused by ischemia-reperfusion injury is a common pathophysiological process that should be monitored by specific biomarkers in addition to serum creatinine. Thus, this single-center retrospective study aimed to investigate the association between levels of neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), kidney injury molecular-1 (KIM-1), liver-type fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP), and interleukin-18 (IL-18) in DGF associated with acute kidney injury in kidney transplant recipients (KTRs) and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) at 3 years post-transplant.
A total of 102 KTRs [14(13.7%) of DGF and 88(86.3%) of NON-DGF] were enrolled. DGF was defined as “dialysis is needed within 1 week after kidney transplantation”. NGAL, KIM-1, L-FABP, and IL-18 were obtained from perfusate samples of donation-after-cardiac-death (DCD) kidneys, and measured by ELISA.
Compared to the NON-DGF group, KTRs in the DGF group had a statistically significant increase in levels of NGAL (P<0.001) and KIM-1 (P<0.001). Multiple logistic regression analyses showed that NGAL (OR=1.204, 95% CI 1.057-1.372, P=0.005) and KIM-1 (OR=1.248, CI=1.065-1.463, P=0.006) could be regarded as independent risk factors. The accuracy of NGAL and KIM-1 was 83.3% and 82.1%, respectively, calculated using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve. Furthermore, the eGFR at 3 years post-transplant had a moderate negative correlation with NGAL (r=-0.208, P=0.036) and KIM-1 (r=-0.260, P=0.008).
Our results support those from previous studies showing that perfusate levels of NGAL and KIM-1 are associated with DGF in KTRs and also with reduced eGFR at 3 years post-transplant.

Keywords: Biomarkers; Delayed Graft Function; Kidney Transplantation; Predictive Value of Tests; Prognosis


01 January 2023 : Editorial  

Editorial: Current Status of Two Adjuvanted Malaria Vaccines and the World Health Organization (WHO) Strategy to Eradicate Malaria by 2030

Dinah V. Parums
Science Editor, Medical Science Monitor, International Scientific Information, Inc., Melville, NY, USA

DOI: 10.12659/MSM.939357

Med Sci Monit 2023; 29:e939357


26 January 2023 : Editorial  

Editorial: The XBB.1.5 (‘Kraken’) Subvariant of Omicron SARS-CoV-2 and its Rapid Global Spread

Med Sci Monit In Press; DOI: 10.12659/MSM.939580  

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Editorial: The XBB.1.5 (‘Kraken’) Subvariant of Omicron SARS-CoV-2 and its Rapid Global Spread

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Medical Science Monitor eISSN: 1643-3750
Medical Science Monitor eISSN: 1643-3750