Logo Medical Science Monitor

Call: +1.631.470.9640
Mon - Fri 10:00 am - 02:00 pm EST

Contact Us

Logo Medical Science Monitor Logo Medical Science Monitor Logo Medical Science Monitor

12 September 2023 : Clinical Research  

[In Press] Identifying Predominant Causes of Death Among Hospitalized COVID-19 Patients During Poland's Second and Third Waves

Irina Niecwietajewa ORCID logo1ABCDEFG, Michał Frączek2ABCDEFG, Maria Mroczkowska3BC, Mariusz Frączek ORCID logo4ABCDEFG

DOI: 10.12659/MSM.941455

Med Sci Monit In Press; DOI: 10.12659/MSM.941455  

Available online: 2023-09-12, In Press, Corrected Proof

Publication in the "In-Press" formula aims at speeding up the public availability of the pending manuscript while waiting for the final publication. The assigned DOI number is active and citable. The availability of the article in the Medline, PubMed and PMC databases as well as Web of Science will be obtained after the final publication according to the journal schedule


Number of confirmed COVID-19 deaths per million population in Poland between November 2020 and May 2021 was one of the largest in Europe. This retrospective study was conducted at a single center in Poland between November 2020 and May 2021to evaluate the morbidity and mortality rates in 581 patients hospitalized with COVID-19.
A retrospective single-center study was conducted in a dedicated COVID-19 hospital from November, 2020 to May, 2021. The data of 581 hospitalized patients were analyzed. Multimorbidity was assessed using the Charlson Comorbidity Index, including chronic kidney, respiratory, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus, cancer, and dementia. The observation period covered admission to the hospital for severe COVID-19 until discharge or death. Diagnosis of COVID-19 was confirmed by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction test. Statistical analysis was carried out in the IBM SPSS Statistics program.
The mortality rate was 35% of all admitted patients. Lung damage was the cause of death in 60%, bacterial superinfection in 26%, arterial thrombosis or thromboembolism in 9%, and heart failure in 5% of patients. The chi-square test showed a significant relationship between sex and the cause of death related to COVID-19 pneumonia and bacterial ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP).
The findings from this study supports findings from other countries that between November 2020 and May 2021, before SARS-CoV-2 vaccination programs were fully implemented and before effective medications and antiviral agents were developed, patients with severe COVID-19 had high rates of morbidity and mortality.

Keywords: COVID-19; Cause of Death; Comorbidity; Inpatients


01 September 2023 : Editorial  

Editorial: A Rapid Global Increase in COVID-19 is Due to the Emergence of the EG.5 (Eris) Subvariant of Omicron SARS-CoV-2

Dinah V. Parums
Science Editor, Medical Science Monitor, International Scientific Information, Inc., Melville, NY, USA

DOI: 10.12659/MSM.942244

Med Sci Monit 2023; 29:e942244


In Press

28 Sep 2023 : Clinical Research  

Trends in Hospitalization Duration for Rare Diseases: A Retrospective Analysis of Sarcoidosis, Still's Dise...

Med Sci Monit In Press; DOI: 10.12659/MSM.941536  

27 Sep 2023 : Laboratory Research  

Enhanced Proliferation and Adhesion Marker Gene Expression in Fibroblast Cells: Evaluating the Efficacy of ...

Med Sci Monit In Press; DOI: 10.12659/MSM.941641  

26 Sep 2023 : Clinical Research  

Hypothalamic Injury and Clinical Outcomes in Patients with Post-Traumatic Hyponatremia: A Diffusion Tensor ...

Med Sci Monit In Press; DOI: 10.12659/MSM.942397  

26 Sep 2023 : Clinical Research  

Psychometric Properties of the Polish Version of the FACIT-Sp-12: Assessing Spiritual Well-Being Among Pati...

Med Sci Monit In Press; DOI: 10.12659/MSM.941769  

Most Viewed Current Articles

13 Nov 2021 : Clinical Research  

Acceptance of COVID-19 Vaccination and Its Associated Factors Among Cancer Patients Attending the Oncology ...

DOI :10.12659/MSM.932788

Med Sci Monit 2021; 27:e932788


30 Dec 2021 : Clinical Research  

Retrospective Study of Outcomes and Hospitalization Rates of Patients in Italy with a Confirmed Diagnosis o...

DOI :10.12659/MSM.935379

Med Sci Monit 2021; 27:e935379

14 Dec 2022 : Clinical Research  

Prevalence and Variability of Allergen-Specific Immunoglobulin E in Patients with Elevated Tryptase Levels

DOI :10.12659/MSM.937990

Med Sci Monit 2022; 28:e937990

08 Mar 2022 : Review article  

A Review of the Potential Roles of Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Pharmacological Approaches for the Man...

DOI :10.12659/MSM.936292

Med Sci Monit 2022; 28:e936292

Your Privacy

We use cookies to ensure the functionality of our website, to personalize content and advertising, to provide social media features, and to analyze our traffic. If you allow us to do so, we also inform our social media, advertising and analysis partners about your use of our website, You can decise for yourself which categories you you want to deny or allow. Please note that based on your settings not all functionalities of the site are available. View our privacy policy.

Medical Science Monitor eISSN: 1643-3750
Medical Science Monitor eISSN: 1643-3750