12 September 2023 : Clinical Research
[In Press] Identifying Predominant Causes of Death Among Hospitalized COVID-19 Patients During Poland's Second and Third WavesIrina Niecwietajewa 1ABCDEFG, Michał Frączek2ABCDEFG, Maria Mroczkowska3BC, Mariusz Frączek 4ABCDEFG
Med Sci Monit In Press; DOI: 10.12659/MSM.941455
Available online: 2023-09-12, In Press, Corrected Proof
Publication in the "In-Press" formula aims at speeding up the public availability of the pending manuscript while waiting for the final publication. The assigned DOI number is active and citable. The availability of the article in the Medline, PubMed and PMC databases as well as Web of Science will be obtained after the final publication according to the journal schedule
Number of confirmed COVID-19 deaths per million population in Poland between November 2020 and May 2021 was one of the largest in Europe. This retrospective study was conducted at a single center in Poland between November 2020 and May 2021to evaluate the morbidity and mortality rates in 581 patients hospitalized with COVID-19.
MATERIAL AND METHODS
A retrospective single-center study was conducted in a dedicated COVID-19 hospital from November, 2020 to May, 2021. The data of 581 hospitalized patients were analyzed. Multimorbidity was assessed using the Charlson Comorbidity Index, including chronic kidney, respiratory, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus, cancer, and dementia. The observation period covered admission to the hospital for severe COVID-19 until discharge or death. Diagnosis of COVID-19 was confirmed by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction test. Statistical analysis was carried out in the IBM SPSS Statistics program.
The mortality rate was 35% of all admitted patients. Lung damage was the cause of death in 60%, bacterial superinfection in 26%, arterial thrombosis or thromboembolism in 9%, and heart failure in 5% of patients. The chi-square test showed a significant relationship between sex and the cause of death related to COVID-19 pneumonia and bacterial ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP).
The findings from this study supports findings from other countries that between November 2020 and May 2021, before SARS-CoV-2 vaccination programs were fully implemented and before effective medications and antiviral agents were developed, patients with severe COVID-19 had high rates of morbidity and mortality.
Keywords: COVID-19; Cause of Death; Comorbidity; Inpatients
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