Logo Medical Science Monitor

Call: +1.631.470.9640
Mon - Fri 10:00 am - 02:00 pm EST

Contact Us

Logo Medical Science Monitor Logo Medical Science Monitor Logo Medical Science Monitor

21 June 2024 : Review article  

A Review of Wastewater-Based Epidemiology Studies for the Assessment of Over-the-Counter Medicines Used as Recreational Drugs: The Example of Dextromethorphan

Szymon Plewa ORCID logo1ABCDEF*, Dagmara Pietkiewicz ORCID logo1ABCDEF, Zenon J. Kokot ORCID logo2AE, Jan Matysiak ORCID logo1AE

DOI: 10.12659/MSM.944120

Med Sci Monit 2024; 30:e944120

Abstract

0:00

The ‘recreational use’ of selected over-the-counter (OTC) medicines is an unofficial activity. The traditional surveys assessing the use of drugs are affected by the bias of underreporting and are thus unreliable. The development of analytical techniques helps to monitor the substances at trace levels, such as in wastewater, and might be applied to estimate the consumption of an analyte of interest and ensure additional, evidence-based information complementary to population surveys. We reviewed studies focused on evaluating the estimated consumption of drugs as a reliable and unbiased source of evidence-based information (called wastewater-based epidemiology, WBE) to monitor the scale of this phenomenon. We found there is a need to test not only narcotics in the environment but also medicines that may be abused or recreationally used. The reviewed studies show methods that might provide reliable information about consumption of drugs, narcotics, and OTC medications for proposing targeted, preventive actions. Moreover, as all the selected studies were based on mass spectrometry, there is a potential to include the dextromethorphan and/or related compounds as part of the screening for narcotics and OTC drugs that can be socially harmful, overused, or misused. This article reviews the analytical methods for detecting dextromethorphan and/or its transformation products in environmental water samples.

Keywords: Dextromethorphan, Dextrorphan, Nonprescription Drugs, Wastewater-Based Epidemiological Monitoring

Add Comment 0 Comments

Editorial

01 July 2024 : Editorial  

Editorial: The Global Threats of Increasing Antimicrobial Resistance Require New Approaches to Drug Development, Including Molecular Antimicrobial Adjuvants

Dinah V. Parums

DOI: 10.12659/MSM.945583

Med Sci Monit 2024; 30:e945583

0:00

In Press

Clinical Research  

Prognostic Impact of Tumor-Infiltrating Immune Cells on Efficacy of Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy in Patients wi...

Med Sci Monit In Press; DOI: 10.12659/MSM.943170  

Clinical Research  

Impact of Denture Use on Oral Health-Related Quality of Life in Yemeni Patients: A Cross-Sectional Analysis

Med Sci Monit In Press; DOI: 10.12659/MSM.944682  

Clinical Research  

Minimally Invasive versus Traditional Surgery: Efficacy of PELD and PLIF in Treating Pyogenic Spondylodiscitis

Med Sci Monit In Press; DOI: 10.12659/MSM.943176  

Clinical Research  

Frontal Plane Body Posture as a Predictor of Musculoskeletal Injuries in Amateur Athletes: A Comprehensive ...

Med Sci Monit In Press; DOI: 10.12659/MSM.944810  

Most Viewed Current Articles

17 Jan 2024 : Review article   3,861,054

Vaccination Guidelines for Pregnant Women: Addressing COVID-19 and the Omicron Variant

DOI :10.12659/MSM.942799

Med Sci Monit 2024; 30:e942799

0:00

14 Dec 2022 : Clinical Research   1,585,498

Prevalence and Variability of Allergen-Specific Immunoglobulin E in Patients with Elevated Tryptase Levels

DOI :10.12659/MSM.937990

Med Sci Monit 2022; 28:e937990

0:00

16 May 2023 : Clinical Research   690,905

Electrophysiological Testing for an Auditory Processing Disorder and Reading Performance in 54 School Stude...

DOI :10.12659/MSM.940387

Med Sci Monit 2023; 29:e940387

0:00

01 Jan 2022 : Editorial   50,731

Editorial: Current Status of Oral Antiviral Drug Treatments for SARS-CoV-2 Infection in Non-Hospitalized Pa...

DOI :10.12659/MSM.935952

Med Sci Monit 2022; 28:e935952

0:00

Your Privacy

We use cookies to ensure the functionality of our website, to personalize content and advertising, to provide social media features, and to analyze our traffic. If you allow us to do so, we also inform our social media, advertising and analysis partners about your use of our website, You can decise for yourself which categories you you want to deny or allow. Please note that based on your settings not all functionalities of the site are available. View our privacy policy.

Medical Science Monitor eISSN: 1643-3750
Medical Science Monitor eISSN: 1643-3750