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20 June 2024 : Animal Research  

Targeting the Gut-Kidney Axis in Diarrhea with Kidney-Yang Deficiency Syndrome: The Role of Sishen Pills in Regulating TMAO-Mediated Inflammatory Response

Shiqin Xie1BCDEF, Leyao Fang1BCF, Na Deng1BCD, Junxi Shen1BC, Zhoujin Tan1AG*, Xinxin Peng2AF

DOI: 10.12659/MSM.944185

Med Sci Monit 2024; 30:e944185



BACKGROUND: Sishen Pills (SSPs) are commonly used to treat diarrhea with kidney-yang deficiency syndrome. Trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) is produced through the metabolism of gut microbiota and can participate in diarrhea in kidney-yang deficiency syndrome by mediating the “gut-kidney axis” to transmit inflammatory factors. This study combined network pharmacology with animal experiments to explore whether SSPs can treat diarrhea with kidney-yang deficiency syndrome by affecting the interaction between TMAO and gut microbiota.

MATERIAL AND METHODS: A mouse model of diarrhea with kidney-yang deficiency syndrome was constructed by using adenine and Folium sennae decoction, and SSP decoction was used for treatment. This study utilized network pharmacology to predict the potential mechanisms of SSPs in treating diarrhea with kidney-yang deficiency syndrome. 16S rRNA high-throughput sequencing was used to analyze gut mucosal microbial characteristics. ELISA was used to measure TMAO, NOD-like receptor thermal protein domain associated protein 3 (NLRP3), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) levels. We performed Masson and immunohistochemical (Occludin, ZO-1) staining of kidney and small intestinal tissues. The fluorescein diacetate (FDA) hydrolysis spectrophotometric method was used to assess the microbial activity in contents of the small intestine.

RESULTS: Network pharmacology analysis revealed that SSPs can modulate 108 target points involved in the development of diarrhea, including IL-1β and TNF. The experimental results demonstrated that SSP decoction significantly improved the general behavioral profiles of the mice, and also reduced TMAO, NLRP3, IL-1β, and TGF-β1 levels (P<0.05). Correlation analysis revealed significant positive correlations between TMAO concentrations and NLRP3, IL-1β and TGF-β1 levels (P<0.05). Pathological analysis revealed improvements in renal fibrosis and increased expression of the Occludin and ZO-1 proteins in intestinal tissue. In the SSP group, there was a significant increase in microbial activity (P<0.001). According to the sequencing results, the characteristic bacteria of the SSP and NR groups included Succinatimonas hippei, uncultured Solirubrobacter sp., and Clostridium tyrobutyricum. Furthermore, TMAO, NLRP3, IL-1β, and TGF-β1 were significantly positively correlated (P<0.05) with Succinatimonas hippei and Clostridium tyrobutyricum. By modulating Firmicutes, Succinatimonas hippei, and Clostridium tyrobutyricum, SSP decoction lowers TMAO levels to alleviate diarrhea with kidney-yang deficiency syndrome.

CONCLUSIONS: TMAO likely plays a significant role in the “gut-kidney axis” of diarrhea with kidney-yang deficiency syndrome. By adjusting gut microbiota to reduce the inflammatory response that is transmitted through the “gut-kidney axis” as a result of elevated TMAO levels, SSP decoction can alleviate diarrhea with kidney-yang deficiency syndrome.

Keywords: inflammation, Sishen Wan, trimethyloxamine

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01 July 2024 : Editorial  

Editorial: The Global Threats of Increasing Antimicrobial Resistance Require New Approaches to Drug Development, Including Molecular Antimicrobial Adjuvants

Dinah V. Parums

DOI: 10.12659/MSM.945583

Med Sci Monit 2024; 30:e945583


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Medical Science Monitor eISSN: 1643-3750
Medical Science Monitor eISSN: 1643-3750