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26 February 2022: Review Articles

A Review of Current Clinical Concepts in the Pathophysiology, Etiology, Diagnosis, and Management of Hypercalcemia

Carolina Rodrigues Tonon ABCDEF* , Taline Alisson Artemis Lazzarin Silva ABCDEF , Filipe Welson Leal Pereira ABDE , Diego Aparecido Rios Queiroz ABDE , Edson Luiz Favero Junior BD , Danilo Martins E , Paula Schimdt Azevedo ABE , Marina Politi Okoshi ABCDEFG , Leonardo Antonio Mamede Zornoff DE , Sergio Alberto Rupp de Paiva CDE , Marcos Ferreira Minicucci ACDE , Bertha Furlan Polegato ABCDEFG

DOI: 10.12659/MSM.935821

Med Sci Monit 2022; 28:e935821

Table 1 Causes of hypercalcemia.

 PTHrp production
 Ectopic production of PTH
 Extrarenal activation of Vitamin D
 Thiazide diuretics
 Lithium carbonate
 Vitamin D and A supplements
 Familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia
 Adrenal insufficiency
PTH – parathyroid hormone; PTHrp – parathyroid hormone related-protein.

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Medical Science Monitor eISSN: 1643-3750
Medical Science Monitor eISSN: 1643-3750