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09 September 2022: Clinical Research

Use of Mobile Apps and Wearables to Monitor Diet, Weight, and Physical Activity: A Cross-Sectional Survey of Adults in Poland

Adam Żarnowski 1ABCDEF* , Mateusz Jankowski 2ACE , Mariusz Gujski 1ADE

DOI: 10.12659/MSM.937948

Med Sci Monit 2022; 28:e937948

Table 3 Factors associated with the use of mobile apps to control diet, weight, and physical activity (n=1070).

Factors associated with the use of mobile apps to control diet, weight, and physical activity
VariableMobile application to monitor physical activity levelMobile application to control the diet
Simple logistic regressionMultivariable logistic regressionSimple logistic regressionMultivariable logistic regression
pOR (95% CI)pOR (95% CI)pOR (95% CI)pOR (95% CI)
 Female0.70.93 (0.67–1.29)0.11.32 (0.92–1.89)
 MaleReferenceReference
 18–294.20 (2.47–7.13)3.77 (1.84–7.75)8.85 (4.28–18.33)7.73 (2.96–20.17)
 30–392.88 (1.65–5.01)2.57 (1.26–5.24)5.73 (2.70–12.17)4.70 (1.81–12.17)
 40–490.21.49 (0.79–2.79)0.41.41 (0.66–3.00)3.84 (1.73–8.52)3.83 (1.46–9.99)
 50–590.51.27 (0.67–2.42)0.61.23 (0.59–2.57)1.95 (0.82–4.66)2.09 (0.81–5.43)
 60+ReferenceReferenceReferenceReference
 PrimaryReferenceReference
 Vocational0.81.15 (0.39–3.46)0.81.26 (0.26–6.10)
 Secondary0.80.89 (0.30–2.69)0.51.71 (0.40–7.46)
 Higher0.40.57 (0.17–1.98)0.41.79 (0.41–7.80)
 Single0.11.67 (0.91–3.05)0.60.79 (0.36–1.72)3.41 (1.48–7.88)0.81.12 (0.41–3.05)
 Married0.90.96 (0.55–1.70)0.20.66 (0.35–1.26)2.26 (1.01–5.07)0.41.50 (0.62–3.65)
 Informal relationship1.93 (1.04–3.59)0.50.79 (0.37–1.68)4.16 (1.78–9.73)0.51.41 (0.53–3.74)
 Divorced/widowedReferenceReferenceReferenceReference
 YesReferenceReferenceReferenceReference
 No1.77 (1.28–2.46)0.81.07 (0.64–1.77)1.95 (1.36–2.78)0.11.69 (0.87–3.30)
 Living alone0.91.01 (0.63–1.61)0.70.90 (0.53–1.53)
 Living with at least one personReferenceReference
 Yes0.81.05 (0.75–1.47)1.45 (1.01–2.07)0.41.25 (0.71–2.19)
 NoReferenceReferenceReference
 RuralReferenceReference0.80.93 (0.53–1.64)
 City below 20,000 residents0.80.91 (0.50–1.67)0.60.84 (0.44–1.60)0.60.81 (0.40–1.65)
 City from 20,000 to 99,999 residents1.72 (1.10–2.69)1.92 (1.17–3.16)0.71.14 (0.63–2.06)
 City from 100,000 to 499,999 residents0.21.37 (0.85–2.21)0.31.33 (0.78–2.27)0.91.04 (0.56–1.92)
 City above 500,000 residents1.85 (1.12–3.05)2.14 (1.22–3.74)Reference
 Active1.85 (1.29–2.66)0.31.25 (0.79–1.98)1.71 (1.16–2.53)0.80.94 (0.58–1.53)
 PassiveReferenceReferenceReferenceReference
 Rather good, good or very good0.21.31 (0.85–2.03)0.31.31 (0.82–2.09)
 Moderate/difficult to tell0.70.92 (0.59–1.45)0.60.87 (0.53–1.42)
 Rather bad, bad or very goodReferenceReference
Presence of chronic diseases
 Yes0.007Reference0.2Reference0.20.80 (0.56–1.14)
 No1.59 (1.13–2.22)1.32 (0.88–1.98)Reference
 Rather good, good or very good0.31.40 (0.77–2.53)0.61.21 (0.64–2.28)
 Moderate/difficult to tell0.40.76 (0.41–1.40)0.40.77 (0.40–1.47)
 Rather bad, bad or very goodReferenceReference
 Yes1.93 (1.38–2.70)1.54 (1.04–2.28)2.93 (2.04–4.21)2.71 (1.77–4.14)
 NoReferenceReferenceReferenceReference
 Yes2.30 (1.60–3.31)1.76 (1.16–2.67)2.87 (1.89–4.36)2.19 (1.36–3.53)
 NoReferenceReferenceReferenceReference
 Everyday9.36 (3.86–22.70)5.58 (2.22–14.04)4.12 (1.89–9.98)0.21.78 (0.76–4.19)
 3–4 Times per week10.54 (4.39–25.30)5.53 (2.21–13.86)4.95 (2.32–10.58)0.11.97 (0.85–4.55)
 1–2 Times per week7.07 (2.93–17.09)3.31 (1.31–8.36)3.30 (1.53–7.14)0.51.31 (0.56–3.07)
 2–3 Times per month5.31 (1.97–14.28)2.97 (1.06–8.35)5.02 (2.18–11.59)0.062.40 (0.97–5.95)
 Once per month7.28 (2.38–22.26)5.34 (1.66–17.23)0.082.75 (0.87–8.66)0.51.54 (0.45–5.30)
 Less than once per month4.58 (1.77–11.87)3.65 (1.38–9.70)0.12.09 (0.87–5.03)0.41.57 (0.62–3.99)
 NeverReferenceReferenceReferenceReference
 Daily smoker0.40.85 (0.57–1.27)0.51.14 (0.75–1.73)0.061.60 (0.99–2.60)
 Occassional smoker0.11.57 (0.92–2.68)1.90 (1.08–3.34)0.51.28 (0.65–2.53)
 Non-smokersReferenceReferenceReference
 Everyday0.12.25 (0.86–5.86)0.12.14 (0.76–6.02)3.24 (1.29–8.15)0.062.81 (0.99–7.97)
 3–4 Times per week2.69 (1.25–5.76)0.052.32 (1.00–5.39)2.60 (1.17–5.75)0.092.17 (0.89–5.30)
 1–2 Times per week3.10 (1.59–6.05)2.46 (1.19–5.11)0.071.94 (0.94–4.00)0.51.34 (0.60–2.98)
 2–3 Times per month3.10 (1.59–6.05)2.34 (1.10–4.97)2.66 (1.29–5.48)2.52 (1.14–5.58)
 Once per month0.11.93 (0.88–4.26)0.21.83 (0.78–4.26)0.11.97 (0.87–4.47)0.31.68 (0.68–4.11)
 Less than once per month2.43 (1.22–4.84)2.26 (1.08–4.72)0.091.91 (0.92–3.97)0.11.96 (0.88–4.34)
 NeverReferenceReferenceReferenceReference
 Yes3.34 (2.20–5.07)0.051.60 (0.99–2.58)3.77 (2.44–5.83)1.94 (1.16–3.23)
 NoReferenceReferenceReferenceReference
 Yes2.79 (1.82–4.30)1.70 (1.04–2.76)3.60 (2.31–5.60)2.29 (1.36–3.87)
 NoReferenceReferenceReferenceReference

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Medical Science Monitor eISSN: 1643-3750
Medical Science Monitor eISSN: 1643-3750