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28 November 2022: Clinical Research

Retrospective Study to Identify Risk Factors for Severe Disease and Mortality Using the Modified Early Warning Score in 5127 Patients with COVID-19 Admitted to an Emergency Department in Poland Between March 2020 and April 2021

Sławomir Butkiewicz 1ABDEF , Artur Zaczyński 2B , Igor Pańkowski 1B , Piotr Tomaka 3DF , Ewa Rzońca 4DF , Daniel Ślęzak 5F , Marcin Podgórski 6D , Robert Gałązkowski 6DF , Jarosław Hiczkiewicz 7D , Patryk Rzońca 8ACDEF*

DOI: 10.12659/MSM.938647

Med Sci Monit 2022; 28:e938647

Table 3 Logistic regression analysis evaluating the impact of selected factors on the risk of Intensive Care Unit (ICU) admission in patients hospitalized with COVID-19 (from March 1, 2020, to April 30, 2021).

VariableORc95% CIp-valueORa95% CIp-value
Age >601.140.93–1.400.217
Sex (Male)1.961.59–2.401.681.40–2.01
Fever (>38°C)1.120.90–1.39
Respiratory effort1.601.24–2.07
Muscle pain0.640.43–0.960.030
Chest/back pain0.860.55–1.320.480
Loss/change in sense of taste0.850.56–1.300.451
Loss/change in sense of smell0.860.47–1.270.443
Acute coronary syndromes1.090.73–1.620.688
Stroke history0.750.45–1.230.251
Heart failure1.340.95–1.890.096
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease2.761.73–4.421.751.07–2.870.027
Renal failure1.561.10–2.210.012
Ventilator therapy3.512.62–4.723.632.81–4.690.001
Nasal high-flow therapy2.602.06––3.80
Duration of hospital stay1.061.05–1.06
MEWS ≥516.9914.15–20.4026.1611.69–58.52
WBC count >105.373.27–8.82
RBC count1.800.75–4.350.190
Platelet count2.521.26–5.030.0096.711.97–22.900.002
Neutrophil count >814.557.02–30.1817.044.77–60.83
Lymphocyte count8.834.42–17.61
Monocyte count6.752.89–15.75
Percentage of lung parenchyma affected >50%3.692.76–4.944.131.12–15.220.033
Systolic blood pressure12.257.12––10.810.005
Diastolic blood pressure5.663.90–8.23
Heart rate >1255.093.28–7.87
Respiratory rate >2416.1410.63–24.512.791.60–4.86
Oxygen saturation17.5413.02–23.632.901.75–4.80
ORc – crude odds ratio; ORa – adjusted odds ratio; 95% CI – 95% confidence interval; MEWS – modified early warning score; WBC – white blood cells; RBC – red blood cells; MAP – mean arterial pressure.

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Medical Science Monitor eISSN: 1643-3750
Medical Science Monitor eISSN: 1643-3750