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28 November 2022: Clinical Research

Retrospective Study to Identify Risk Factors for Severe Disease and Mortality Using the Modified Early Warning Score in 5127 Patients with COVID-19 Admitted to an Emergency Department in Poland Between March 2020 and April 2021

Sławomir Butkiewicz 1ABDEF , Artur Zaczyński 2B , Igor Pańkowski 1B , Piotr Tomaka 3DF , Ewa Rzońca 4DF , Daniel Ślęzak 5F , Marcin Podgórski 6D , Robert Gałązkowski 6DF , Jarosław Hiczkiewicz 7D , Patryk Rzońca 8ACDEF*

DOI: 10.12659/MSM.938647

Med Sci Monit 2022; 28:e938647

Table 4 Results of the multivariate Cox proportional hazards model to predict mortality in patients with COVID-19 (from March 1, 2020, to April 30, 2021).

VariableHRc95% CIp-valueHRa95% CIp-value
Age >602.472.11–2.902.271.94–2.67
Sex (Male)1.131.00–1.270.052
Fever (>38°C)0.570.49–0.66
Muscle pain0.330.23–0.450.600.43–0.860.005
Chest/back pain0.500.37–0.69
Loss/change in sense of taste0.340.23–0.51
Loss/change in sense of smell0.340.24–0.490.590.41–0.850.005
Acute coronary syndromes1.020.82–1.270.844
Stroke history1.050.84–1.310.682
Heart failure1.241.03–1.480.0211.311.07–0.610.009
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease1.060.77–1.460.728
Renal failure1.221.01–1.480.0401.371.11–1.690.004
Ventilator therapy1.531.25–1.841.231.01–1.490.036
Nasal high-flow therapy0.930.80–1.080.333
Intensive care unit admission2.261.98–2.582.332.05–2.65
MEWS ≥51.611.44–1.811.431.18–1.73
WBC count >102.882.34–3.54
RBC count2.301.80–2.953.172.22–4.53
Platelet count1.881.47–2.39
Neutrophil count >83.642.89–4.582.291.57–3.35
Lymphocyte count3.762.90–4.882.051.55–2.71
Monocyte count4.883.66–6.51
Percentage of lung parenchyma affected >50%2.021.69–2.402.101.36–3.240.001
Diastolic blood pressure2.521.86–3.41
Heart rate >1252.651.85–3.79
Respiratory rate >243.602.60–4.992.101.39–3.15
Oxygen saturation3.272.58–4.152.651.83–3.84
HRc – crude hazard ratio; HRa – adjusted hazard ratio; 95% CI – 95% confidence interval; MEWS – modified early warning score; WBC – white blood cells; RBC – red blood cells; MAP – mean arterial pressure.

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Medical Science Monitor eISSN: 1643-3750
Medical Science Monitor eISSN: 1643-3750