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23 February 2023: Review Articles

Presentation, Diagnosis, and Management of Lower Back Pain Associated with Spinal Stenosis: A Narrative Review

Dawid Sobański 12ADEF* , Rafał Staszkiewicz 13ADEF , Magdalena Stachura 24EF , Marcin Gadzieliński 3EF , Beniamin Oskar Grabarek 13AEF

DOI: 10.12659/MSM.939237

Med Sci Monit 2023; 29:e939237

Table 1 Causes of pain in the lumbar region of the spine.

Degenerative diseaseDegenerative disc disease; degenerative vertebral body disease causing pressure on the nerve roots; degenerative disease in the intervertebral joints
Inflammatory changesAnkylosing spondylitis; rheumatoid arthritis; infections (tuberculosis, brucellosis, typhuses, staphylococcus, fungal infections); other infectious spondylopathies
CancersPrimary bone cancers (plasmocytoma, osteoma, chondro-osteoma); cancers of the nervous system (glioma, fibroma molluscum, meningioma); metastases from the breast gland, prostate gland, lungs, and kidneys)
Metabolic diseasesOsteoporosis; osteomalacia; Paget’s disease; calcium pyrophosphate deposition; ochronosis; hyperactivity of the parathyroid glands
InjuriesAcute and chronic overloads; intervertebral joint subluxation; spondyloses; vertebral body compression fractures; transverse process fractures of the lumbar vertebrae
Other congenital and acquired disorders of the statics of the spineLordoses and kyphoses; scoliosis; spondylolistheses; L5 sacralization; S1 lumbarization; cleft spine
Diseases outside the spine causing pain in the area of the L-S spinePain in the lumbar region of the spine caused by a duodenal ulcer, diseases (especially cancers) of the pancreas, kidneys, lymph nodes, abdominal cavity, shingles, thoracic aortic aneurysm; pain in the sacral region due to: diseases (especially cancers) of the uterus, rectum, prostate gland, ovaries, and pelvic lymph nodes

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Medical Science Monitor eISSN: 1643-3750
Medical Science Monitor eISSN: 1643-3750