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20 July 2023: Review Articles

Understanding Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome in High-Altitude Environments: A Comprehensive Review of Diagnosis and Treatment

Litao Guo 1ABEF* , Jingjing Sun 1CEF* , Zongzhao He 2BF* , Qindong Shi 1AEF* , Siqing Ma 2ADFG**

DOI: 10.12659/MSM.939935

Med Sci Monit 2023; 29:e939935

Table 2 The Berlin definition of acute respiratory distress syndrome [1].

TimingWithin 1 week of a known clinical insult or new or worsening respiratory symptoms
Chest imaginga Bilateral opacities not fully explained by effusions, lobar/lung collapse, or nodules
Origin of edemaRespiratory failure not fully explained by cardiac failure or fluid overload. Need objective assessment (eg, echocardiography) to exclude hydrostatic edema if no risk factor present
Oxygenationb
 Mild200 mmHgc
 Moderate100 mmHgc
 SeverePaO/FiO ≤100 mmHg with PEEP ≥5 cmHOc
CPAP – continuous positive airway pressure; FiO – fraction of inspired oxygen; PaO – partial pressure of arterial oxygen; PEEP – positive end-expiratory pressure.
a Chest radiograph or computed tomography scan;
b If altitude is higher than 1000 m, the correction factor should be calculated as follows: (PaO/FiO×[barometric pressure/760]);
c This may be delivered noninvasively in the mild acute respiratory distress syndrome group.

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Medical Science Monitor eISSN: 1643-3750
Medical Science Monitor eISSN: 1643-3750