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20 June 2023: Database Analysis

COVID-19 Pandemic and Healthcare Communication: A Patient-Centric Evaluation of Treatment and Diagnostic Procedures in Poland

Zbigniew Izdebski 12ABFG , Joanna Mazur 2ABCDEFG , Alicja Kozakiewicz 2ABEFG* , Agnieszka Żeromska-Michniewicz 3EF , Jakub Berezowski 4AEF

DOI: 10.12659/MSM.940227

Med Sci Monit 2023; 29:e940227

Table 3 ITDP perceptions according to selected demographic and social factors (N=1860).

Individual factorNPerceived impact of pandemic (%)Chi-Sq.P
No impactPositive or mixed impactExclusively negative impact
Age (years)35.44d.f.=6
 65 or over41118.224.157.7
Level of education13.77d.f.=4
 Below secondary42513.428.757.9
 Above secondary71011.121.167.7
Relationships status4.54d.f.=4(0.337)
Place of residence10.71d.f.=6(0.098)
 Rural region67112.519.168.4
 City of up to 100000 people59212.824.762.5
 City of 100000–500000 people34412.825.062.2
 City of over 500000 people25312.327.360.5
Family economic situation10.89d.f.=4
 Poor or very poor62711.020.668.4
 Good or very good58113.326.560.2
Change in economic situation during the pandemic29.07d.f.=4
 No change99815.224.560.2

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Medical Science Monitor eISSN: 1643-3750
Medical Science Monitor eISSN: 1643-3750