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20 June 2023: Database Analysis

COVID-19 Pandemic and Healthcare Communication: A Patient-Centric Evaluation of Treatment and Diagnostic Procedures in Poland

Zbigniew Izdebski 12ABFG , Joanna Mazur 2ABCDEFG , Alicja Kozakiewicz 2ABEFG* , Agnieszka Żeromska-Michniewicz 3EF , Jakub Berezowski 4AEF

DOI: 10.12659/MSM.940227

Med Sci Monit 2023; 29:e940227

Table 4 ITDP perceptions according to selected health indicators (N=1860).

Assessment of health and medical services during the pandemic*Perceived impact of pandemic (%)Chi-Sq.P
No impactPositive or mixed impactExclusively negative impact
Self-rated health2.99d.f.=4(0.560)
 Poor or rather poor13.620.565.8
 Good or very good13.123.663.3
Chronic conditions1.09d.f.=2(0.581)
 No or undetermined12.224.363.5
Hospital or ED stay4.22d.f.=2(0.122)
Healthcare within the last 24 months11.71d.f.=2
 Public only (NFZ)14.325.760.0
Financing of private healthcare15.03d.f.=2
 NFZ or mixed14.525.060.6
 Out-of-pocket only10.320.769.0
Mode of healthcare delivery within the last 24 months8.95d.f.=2
 All face-to-face13.924.761.4
 All remote or mixed11.020.968.1
Treatment for SARS-CoV-2 virus29.73d.f.=4
 No treatment or asymptomatic15.622.262.1
 Self-treated at home9.021.469.6
 Doctor or hospital treatment6.730.462.9
* The exact categories and frequencies are shown in .

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Medical Science Monitor eISSN: 1643-3750
Medical Science Monitor eISSN: 1643-3750