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20 June 2023: Database Analysis

COVID-19 Pandemic and Healthcare Communication: A Patient-Centric Evaluation of Treatment and Diagnostic Procedures in Poland

Zbigniew Izdebski 12ABFG , Joanna Mazur 2ABCDEFG , Alicja Kozakiewicz 2ABEFG* , Agnieszka Żeromska-Michniewicz 3EF , Jakub Berezowski 4AEF

DOI: 10.12659/MSM.940227

Med Sci Monit 2023; 29:e940227

Table 6 The risk factors of exclusively negative ITDP perceptions, by order of importance when entered into the binary logistic regression model (N=1765).

Independent VariableBSEpOR95% CI (OR)
Increased focus on health problems associated with COVID-19
 Hindered communication1.0380.1650.0002.8242.043–3.903
 Didn’t hinder communication (ref.)1.000
Remote consultations
 Hindered communication0.5100.1260.0001.6651.300–2.132
 Didn’t hinder communication (ref.)1.000
Change in economic situation during the pandemic0.000
 No change0.2840.2380.2321.3290.834–2.117
 Improvement (ref.)1.000
Level of education
 Below secondary (ref.)1.000
 Above secondary0.5480.1470.0001.7291.296–2.308
Type and financing of healthcare
 Self-funded private healthcare0.3150.1080.0031.3701.109–1.693
 Public healthcare (NFZ) or partially self-funded private healthcare (ref.)1.000
Social distancing
 Hindered communication0.3620.1300.0051.4361.113–1.852
 Didn’t hinder communication (ref.)1.000
Mode of healthcare delivery
 All remote or mixed0.2700.1080.0131.3111.060–1.621
 All face-to-face (ref.)1.000
Age (years)
 65 or over (ref.)1.000

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Medical Science Monitor eISSN: 1643-3750
Medical Science Monitor eISSN: 1643-3750