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29 February 2024: Review Articles

Review of the Evaluation of Pulmonary Hypoplasia as an Important Determinant of Clinical Outcomes in Infants with Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia

Daria Kuchnowska AEF , Katarzyna Luterek AEF* , Piotr Węgrzyn E , Przemysław Kosiński AEF

DOI: 10.12659/MSM.943259

Med Sci Monit 2024; 30:e943259

Table 1 Different methods of prenatal risk assessment of lung hypoplasia in congenital diaphragmatic hernia.

NameMethod of ImagingFormula, if availableAdvantagesDisadvantages
Lung areaUSTracing method or anterior-posterior and transverse measurement at 4-chamber view of the heart
o/e LHRUSo/e LHR=observed LHR/expected LHR
Presence of liver herniationUS/MRI
Percentage of liver herniationUS/MRI% of liver herniation=100×(liver above the diaphragm/total liver volume)
Liver growth inside chestUS
Hyperoxygenation testDoppler US
Total lung volumeMRI
PI, PEDRF, PSV, proximal branchesDoppler US
US – ultrasound; LHR – lungs-to-head ratio; LA – lung area; HC – head circumference; o/e LHR – observed-to-expected lungs-to-head ratio; CDH – congenital diaphragmatic hernia; FETO – fetoscopic endoluminal tracheal occlusion; QLI – quantitative lung index; QLI-R – quantitative lung index – right lung; QLI-L – quantitative lung index – left lung; MRI – magnetic resonance imaging; PI – pulsatility index; PEDRF – peak early diastolic refractory flow; PSV – peak systolic velocity.

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Medical Science Monitor eISSN: 1643-3750
Medical Science Monitor eISSN: 1643-3750