09 July 2022>: Meta-Analysis
Urodynamics in Early Diagnosis of Diabetic Bladder Dysfunction in Women: A Systematic Review and Meta-AnalysisÁgnes Rita Martonosi 123BCDEF , Piroska Pázmány 123BE , Szabolcs Kiss 123AD , Fanni Dembrovszky 3AF , Eduard Oštarijaš 3C , László Szabó 124ADG*
Med Sci Monit 2022; 28:e937166
Table 1 Baseline characteristics of the included studies.
|First author||Country (centers) and recruitment period||Study design||Inclusion criteria||LUTS||No. of patients with DC (%)||No. of patients with peripheral neuropathy (%)|
|LUTS assessment||No. of patients with LUTS (%)||No. of patients with urge incontinence (%)||No. of patients with stress incontinence (%)||No. of patient with OAB (%)|
|Al Timimi et al 2020 20||Iraq (single) 2018–2019||Prospective cross-sectional||Patients with T2DM at least 5 years with LUTS||NA||71 (100%)||3 (4.2%)||3 (4.2%)||13 (18.3%)||31 (43.7%)||NA|
|Changxiao et al 2014 21||China (multi) 2010–2013||Prospective cross-sectional||Women aged ≥18 years with DM||IUA/ICS||1525 (93%)||NA||NA||918 (55.9%)||1558 (95%)||NA|
|Galí et al 2015 22||Italy (single) 2008–2010||NA||Patients with T2DM at least 5 years with moderate/severe LUTS||IPSS, QoL, OAB-q, ICI-SF||19 (100%)||14 (73.7%)||4 (21%)||15 (79%)||NA||14 (73.7%)|
|Golabek et al 2012 23||Republic of Ireland (single) 2004–2008||Retrospective cohort||Diabetic female with OAB, defined as an involuntary rise in detrusor pressure of greater than 5 cm H2O during filling||NA||29 (100%)||15 (51%)||0||29 (100%)||29 (100%)||NA|
|Lee et al 2007 24||Taiwan (single) 2002–2003||NA||Women with T2DM with no concurrent neurologic disorder or medical conditions that could interfere with voiding function, without bladder dysfunction||AUA-SI||47 (100%)||NA||NA||0||47 (100%)#||18 (38.3%)|
|Løwenstein et al 2021 25||Denmark (multi) 2016–2020||Prospective randomized||Adult women with symptoms of urinary incontinence, urgency and nocturia||ICIQ-UI SF, ICIQ-OAB||31 (100%)||NA||4 (12.9%)||4 (12.9%)||NA||4 (12.9%)|
|Malik et al 2020 26||USA (multi) 2010–2014||Prospective||Female patients with urology-based voiding dysfunction and no neurologic disease||NA||96 (100%)||10 (11%)||44 (45%)||21 (24%)||NA||NA|
|Shin et al 2016 27||South-Korea (single) 2008–2015||Retrospective cohort||Women without BOO who were diagnosed with SUI||NA||92 (100%)||0||92 (100%)||0||NA||NA|
|Tai et al 2009 28||Taiwan (single) 2005–2007||Prospective||Women with T2DM, age 50–75 years||AUA-SI IUSS||100 (36.7%)||49 (18%)||30 (11%)||NA||NA||52 (19.1%)|
|Yenilmez et al 2008 29||Turkey (single) 2004–2007||Prospective cross-sectional||Patients with T2DM and LUTS||NA||45 (100%)||NA||NA||NA||0*||17 (37.7%)|
|Ten full-text articles were included with a total of 2342 diabetic female patients from 9 countries. The majority of the patients (2055 – 87.7%) had LUTS; 1620 diabetic patients had urodynamic measurements and thus were included in the meta-analysis.|
# Diabetic cystopathy was defined as postvoid residual volume greater than 100 mL.
* Diabetic cystopathy was defined as an increase in bladder capacity (more than 500 mL), impaired bladder sensation and decrease bladder contractility.
AUA-SI – American Urological Association Symptom Index; DC – diabetic cystopathy; DM – diabetes mellitus; ICIQ-OAB – International Consultation of Incontinence Questionnaire – Overactive bladder questionnaire; ICIQ-UI – International Consultation of Incontinence Questionnaire Urinary Incontinence Short Form; ICI-SF – International Consultation on Incontinence – Short form; IPSS – International Prostate Symptom Score; IUA/ICS: International Urogynecological Association/International Continence Society Standardization of Terminology Reports; IUSS – Indevus Urgency Severity Scale; LUTS – lower urinary tract symptoms; NA – not available data (not reported); OAB – overactive bladder (detrusor overactivity); OAB-q – Overactive Bladder Questionnaire; QoL – Quality of life Questionnaire; SUI – stress urinary incontinence; T2DM – type 2 diabetes mellitus.