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06 February 2024 : Clinical Research  

Arterial Stiffness and Ankle-Brachial Index – Cross-Sectional Study of 259 Primary Care Patients ≥50 Year-Old

Anna Kamieńska ORCID logo1ABCDEFG*, Aleksandra Danieluk ORCID logo1BCD, Marta Maria Niwińska ORCID logo1BC, Sławomir Chlabicz ORCID logo1ADE

DOI: 10.12659/MSM.942718

Med Sci Monit 2024; 30:e942718

Abstract

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BACKGROUND: Lower-extremity arterial disease (LEAD) is the most common form of peripheral artery disease (PAD), and diagnosis relies on the ankle-brachial index (ABI). The objective of our study was to evaluate the correlation between ABI and arterial stiffness parameters, specifically focusing on PWV. Additionally, we aimed to assess the correlation between PWV and established LEAD risk factors.

MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study included primary care patients aged ≥50 years. Pulse wave velocity was measured with a Mobil-o-Graph Pulse Wave Analyzer (I.E.M. Germany). Two criteria defined abnormal PWV: 1) universal PWV threshold exceeding 10 m/s (uPWVt) and 2) surpassing an individualized threshold calculated by the device, accounting for sex, age, and blood pressure (iPWVt).

RESULTS: We assessed PWV in 266 individuals and both PWV and ABI in 259. Overall, 6/259 (2.3%) had a diagnosis of LEAD, 44/259(16.9%) had ABI <0.9, and 97/259 (37.5%) had PWV values above iPWVt. Among patients with Doppler ABI <0.9, 25/44 (56.8%) exhibited elevated iPWVt versus 72/215 (33.5%) in those with ABI ≥0.9 (P=0.003, r=0.18 Spearman’s correlation). Among patients with ABI <0.9 19/44 (43.2%) had PWV >iPWVt (P=0.003, r=0.18). We observed significant correlation between elevated PWV (both cutoffs) and hypertension (in both P=0.009, r=0.16) and PWV >uPWVt correlated with the presence of diabetes (P=0.004, r=0.18).

CONCLUSIONS: Elevated PWV correlates with abnormal ABI and some cardiovascular risk factors in primary care patients aged 50 and above. Use of individualized PWV thresholds, factoring in age, appears to be a preferable approach for assessment of arterial stiffness and early diagnosis of LEAD.

Keywords: Ankle Brachial Index, peripheral arterial disease, Primary Health Care

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Medical Science Monitor eISSN: 1643-3750
Medical Science Monitor eISSN: 1643-3750