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04 November 2014 : Original article

[Retracted: 11 Nov 2021] Atomic Absorption Spectrometry Analysis of Trace Elements in Degenerated Intervertebral Disc Tissue

Lukasz KubaszewskiABCDEFG, Anetta Zioła-FrankowskaBCDEFG, Marcin FrankowskiABCDEFG, Andrzej NowakowskiDEF, Róża Czabak-GarbaczAEF, Jacek KaczmarczykADFG, Robert GasikACDEG

DOI: 10.12659/MSM.890654

Med Sci Monit 2014; 20:2157-2164

Medical Science Monitor is retracting the following publication on the basis of duplicated published content. 1) Kubaszewski Ł, Zioła-Frankowska A, Frankowski M, Rogala P, Gasik Z, Kaczmarczyk J, Nowakowski A, Dabrowski M, Labedz W, Miękisiak G, Gasik R. Comparison of trace element concentration in bone and intervertebral disc tissue by atomic absorption spectrometry techniques. J Orthop Surg Res. 2014 Oct 25;9: 99. doi: 10.1186/s13018-014-0099-y. PMID: 25342441; PMCID: PMC4220064. 2) Kubaszewski Ł, Zioła-Frankowska A, Frankowski M, Nowakowski A, Czabak-Garbacz R, Kaczmarczyk J, Gasik R. Atomic absorption spectrometry analysis of trace elements in degenerated intervertebral disc tissue. Med Sci Monit. 2014 Nov 4;20: 2157-64. doi: 10.12659/MSM.890654. PMID: 25366266; PMCID: PMC4301216. 3) Nowakowski A, Kubaszewski Ł, Frankowski M, Wilk-Frańczuk M, Zioła-Frankowska A, Czabak-Garbacz R, Kaczmarczyk J, Gasik R. Analysis of trace element in intervertebral disc by Atomic Absorption Spectrometry techniques in degenerative disc disease in the Polish population. Ann Agric Environ Med. 2015;22(2): 362-7. doi: 10.5604/12321966.1152096. PMID: 26094540. We have reviewed the content of all three similar publications. We note that Medical Science Monitor was the second to publish this study, in November 2014. At that time, the Corresponding Author gave no declaration of submitting this study to any other journal, nor of previously publishing this study. Reference: Łukasz Kubaszewski, Anetta Zioła-Frankowska, Marcin Frankowski, Andrzej Nowakowski, Róża Czabak-Garbacz, Jacek Kaczmarczyk, Robert Gasik. Atomic Absorption Spectrometry Analysis of Trace Elements in Degenerated Intervertebral Disc Tissue. Med Sci Monit, 2014; 20: 2157-2164. DOI: 10.12659/MSM.890654


BACKGROUND: Few studies have investigated trace elements (TE) in human intervertebral disc (IVD) tissue. Trace element presence can have diverse meanings: essential TE show the metabolic modalities of the tissue, while environmentally-related TE indicate pollution and tissue-specific absorption and accumulation. IVD is a highly specific compartment with impaired communication with adjacent bone. Analysis of TE in IVD provides new insights regarding tissue metabolism and IVD communication with other tissues.

MATERIAL AND METHODS: Thirty intervertebral discs were acquired from 22 patients during surgical treatment for degenerative disease. Atomic absorption spectrometry was used to evaluate the concentrations of Al, Cd, Pb, Cu, Ni, Mo, Mg, and Zn.

RESULTS: Al, Pb, Cu, Mg, and Zn were detected in all samples. Pb was significantly positively correlated with age, and Ni concentration was weakly correlated with population count in the patient’s place of residence. Only Cu was observed in higher concentrations in IVD compared to in other tissues. Significant positive correlations were observed between the following pairs: Mg/Zn, Mg/Al, Mg/Pb, Zn/Al, Zn/Pb, and Al/Pb. Negative correlations were observed between Mg/Cd, Zn/Cd, Mg/Mo, and Mo/Pb.

CONCLUSIONS: This study is one of few to profile the elements in intervertebral discs in patients with degenerative changes. We report significant differences between trace element concentrations in intervertebral discs compared to in other tissues. Knowledge of the TE accumulation pattern is vital for better understanding intervertebral disc nutrition and metabolism.

Keywords: Retracted Publication

Retraction note

Med Sci Monit 2021; 27:e935438     https://medscimonit.com/abstract/index/idArt/935438
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Medical Science Monitor eISSN: 1643-3750
Medical Science Monitor eISSN: 1643-3750