04 August 2015 : Clinical Research
Med Sci Monit 2015; 21:2266-2274
BACKGROUND: To investigate stromal variables including angiogenesis, lymphangiogenesis, and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) in the serum of patients with urothelial carcinoma of the bladder (UCB) and to evaluate their association with histopathological characteristics and clinical outcome.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: Protein levels of vascular endothelial growth factors-A, -C, -D (VEGF-A/-C/-D), their receptors- VEGF-R2 and -R3 (VEGF-R2/-R3), and matrix metalloproteinases 2, -3, and -7 (MMP-2, MMP-3, MMP-7) were quantified in the blood serum samples of 71 patients with UCB before radical cystectomy (RC). Samples of patients with non-invasive UCB or no history of UCB were investigated as controls (n=20). Protein levels in the serum were measured using a flow cytometric cytokine assay.
RESULTS: A positive association for VEGF-D (p<0.001) and an inverse association for MMP-2 (p=0.017) were observed in patients with positive lymph node (LN) status at the time of RC. VEGF-A (p<0.001), VEGF-C (p<0.001), MMP-2 (p<0.001), and MMP-7 (p=0.005) serum levels were different in serum of patients with invasive UCB compared with non-invasive UCB or healthy individuals. None of the serum markers were associated with disease progression.
CONCLUSIONS: High VEGF-D and low MMP-2 serum levels predict LN metastasis in patients with UCB at the time of RC. VEGF-A, VEGF-C, MMP-2, and MMP-7 serum levels varied significantly between invasive and non-invasive disease as well as in comparison with healthy individuals. Clinical implementation of these marker serum measurements may be valuable to select high-risk patients with more invasive or nodal-positive disease.
Keywords: Biomarkers, Tumor - blood, Aged, 80 and over, Case-Control Studies, Matrix Metalloproteinase 2 - blood, Predictive Value of Tests, Prognosis, Urinary Bladder Neoplasms - secondary, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor D - blood
12 September 2022 : EditorialEditorial: Treatment with Dual Incretin Receptor Agonists to Maintain Normal Glucose Levels May Also Maintain Normal Weight and Control Metabolic Dysfunction-Associated Fatty Liver Disease (MAFLD)
Med Sci Monit 2022; 28:e938365
16 September 2022 : Review articleEffects of Physiotherapy on Rehabilitation and Quality of Life in Patients Hospitalized for COVID-19: A Rev...
Med Sci Monit In Press; DOI: 10.12659/MSM.938141
12 September 2022 : Clinical ResearchEffect of Vitamin D Concentration on Course of COVID-19
Med Sci Monit In Press; DOI: 10.12659/MSM.937741
29 August 2022 : Database AnalysisTranscriptome Analysis of Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells Response in Patients with Severe COVID-19 Reve...
Med Sci Monit 2022; 28:e937532
23 Sep 2022 : Review articleA Review of the Role of Ultrasound Radiomics and Its Application and Limitations in the Investigation of Th...
Med Sci Monit In Press; DOI: 10.12659/MSM.937738
23 Sep 2022 : Review articleReview of the Long-Term Outcomes of Guided Bone Regeneration and Autologous Bone Block Augmentation for Ver...
Med Sci Monit In Press; DOI: 10.12659/MSM.937433
22 Sep 2022 : Clinical ResearchComparison of Incremental Shuttle Walking Test, 6-Minute Walking Test, and Cardiopulmonary Exercise Stress ...
Med Sci Monit In Press; DOI: 10.12659/MSM.938140
Most Viewed Current Articles
30 Dec 2021 : Clinical ResearchRetrospective Study of Outcomes and Hospitalization Rates of Patients in Italy with a Confirmed Diagnosis o...
Med Sci Monit 2021; 27:e935379
13 Nov 2021 : Clinical ResearchAcceptance of COVID-19 Vaccination and Its Associated Factors Among Cancer Patients Attending the Oncology ...
Med Sci Monit 2021; 27:e932788
08 Mar 2022 : Review articleA Review of the Potential Roles of Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Pharmacological Approaches for the Man...
Med Sci Monit 2022; 28:e936292