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18 May 2019 : Laboratory Research

[Retracted: 30 Dec 2020] Naturally Occurring Sesquiterpene Lactone-Santonin, Exerts Anticancer Effects in Multi-Drug Resistant Breast Cancer Cells by Inducing Mitochondrial Mediated Apoptosis, Caspase Activation, Cell Cycle Arrest, and by Targeting Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK Signaling Pathway

Zhiqiang Wu12BCD, Chenchen Wang13BCDE, Mingzhu Huang13DEF, Zhonghua Tao13BCD, Wangjun Yan12CDF, Yiqun Du13ADG*

DOI: 10.12659/MSM.915246

Med Sci Monit 2019; 25:3676-3682

It is now clear that the photomicrographs in Figure 2 are duplicates of the same image and that Figures 4 and 5 have been ‘copied’ from a publication “Lupeol triterpene exhibits potent antitumor effects in A427 human lung carcinoma cells via mitochondrial mediated apoptosis, ROS generation, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and downregulation of m-TOR/PI3Ksol;AKT signalling pathway” by Wei He, Xiang Li, Shuyue Xia, PMID: 30003730. Because the manuscript contains non-credible results and has also breached copyright, this journal is retracting the above publication.


BACKGROUND: Sesquiterpene lactones have gained tremendous attention owing to their potent anticancer properties. The main focus of this study was to evaluate the anticancer effects of a naturally occurring sesquiterpene lactone, santonin, against human breast cancer SK-BR-3 cells.

MATERIAL AND METHODS: Cell counting kit 8 assay was used for the determination of cell viability. Apoptosis was detected by DAPI (4’,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole) and annexin V/propidium iodide (IP) staining. Flow cytometry was used for cell cycle analysis and western blotting was used for the estimation of protein expression.

RESULTS: Results showed that santonin exerts significant anti-proliferative effects on the SK-BR-3 breast cancer cells in a concentration dependent manner. Santonin showed an IC₅₀ of 16 µM against SK-BR-3 cells. DAPI staining showed that santonin caused DNA fragmentation in the SK-BR-3 cells, which is indicative of apoptosis. Annexin V/PI staining showed that apoptotic cell percentage increased up to 34.32% at 32 µM concentration of santonin. Santonin also caused an increase in the expression of Bax, caspase-3, and caspase-9, and a decrease in the expression of Bcl-2. Santonin also caused the arrest of the SK-BR-3 cells at the G2/M phase of the cell cycle and suppressed the expression of cyclin A and B1. Finally, santonin could also block the Raf/MEK/ERK pathway in breast cancer cells.

CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this study suggest the potential for the naturally occurring sesquiterpene lactone santonin in breast cancer treatment and also suggest that it could be developed as a promising anticancer agent.

Keywords: Retracted Publication

Retraction note

Med Sci Monit 2020; 26:e930755     https://medscimonit.com/abstract/index/idArt/930755
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Medical Science Monitor eISSN: 1643-3750
Medical Science Monitor eISSN: 1643-3750