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Relationship Between Femur and Femoral Arteries for Identifying Risk Factors for Vascular Injury

Qi Sun, GuoXin Fan, XiFan Li, JinPeng Gong, Wei Ge, Ming Cai

(Department of Orthopaedics, Shanghai Tenth People’s Hospital, Tongji University, School of Medicine, Shanghai, China (mainland))

Med Sci Monit 2017; 23:1733-1740

DOI: 10.12659/MSM.900252

Published: 2017-04-10

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to identify risk factors for vascular injury in proximal femoral fracture through identifying frequency and distances between femur and femoral arteries with computed tomography angiography and 3-dimensional reconstruction.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: In a series of 400 participants, based on measurement results regarding the distribution of femoral arteries in the medial femur, the femoral portion covering that part was divided into levels A–E. The center region, margin region, and risky area in the medial femur were defined. The frequency of femoral arteries and interested shortest distance between the outer femur and superficial, deep, and perforating femoral arteries (SFAs, DFAs, and PFAs) in the center region, margin region, and risky area at each level were recorded.
RESULTS: There were 173 males and 227 females (average age: 63.61±19.18 years) in this study. The starting point and end point for femoral arteries in the medial femur were from 22.55±4.23% to 54.56±8.39% of the whole femur. The femoral arteries in the medial femur mainly were distributed at levels B (88.2%), C (65.9%), and D (40.6%). The femoral arteries in center regions in the risky area, most of which were DFAs and PFAs, were mainly concentrated at levels B (26.93%) and C (11.81%).
CONCLUSIONS: The mid-shaft level was the most risky level, and the DFAs and PFAs were easier to injure than the SFAs when performing internal fixation of proximal femoral fracture. We recommended that great attention be paid to drill and screw insertion around the mid-shaft level for prevention of iatrogenic vascular injury.

Keywords: Bone Screws, Femoral Artery, Femoral Fractures, Vascular System Injuries