Logo Medical Science Monitor

Call: +1.631.470.9640
Mon - Fri 10:00 am - 02:00 pm EST

Contact Us

Logo Medical Science Monitor Logo Medical Science Monitor Logo Medical Science Monitor

01 September 2005

A word on the possible role of the circulating transforming growth factor ss-1 in hypertension, diabetes, obesity, smoking and human disease involving fibrosis.

Shyama Chatterjee, Erick Van Marck

Med Sci Monit 2005; 11(9): LE10-11 :: ID: 428461

Abstract

Dear Editor, Michael C. Peterson in his review article in the July editionof MSM [1], suggests that elevated levels of circulating transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGF beta-1)are part of the molecular link between several entities that have epidemiological ties including hypertension,diabetes, smoking and obesity on one hand and diseases resulting in organ fibrosis on the other includingrenal disease and cardiac fibrosis and hypertrophy in heart failure. His hypothesis is that elevatedlevels of TGF beta-1 lead to disease production and to the synergy of risk factors seen in the productionof human fibrotic diseases. Based on this model he predicts that since the presence of TGF beta-1 enhancesfibrosis it might be expected that circulating levels would be a better predictor of the rate of changein disease severity rather than current disease severity. Thus direct inhibitors of TGF beta-1 or genetherapies antagonizing TGF beta-1 will be found useful in humans with hepatic fibrosis from alcoholicliver disease. We would like to supplement some additional data and views on this topic. We are studyingthe immunopathology of liver fibrosis brought about by schistosomiasis. In developing countries, schistosomiasisis a major health problem, which affects at least 200 million individuals, mainly children, with a totalof 600 million people at risk [2]. The major pathological manifestations of this parasitic disease, causedby helminths of the genus Schistosoma, are due to schistosome eggs trapped in the intestinal wall andthe liver of an infected host. Soluble egg antigens (SEA) secreted by miracidia from within the eggsinduce periovular granuloma formation. Hepatosplenic schistosomiasis arises when this granulomatous inflammatoryreaction becomes chronic and disrupts the organ's architecture and circulation, leading to severe hepaticfibrosis, portal hypertension and oesophageal varices, which may rupture and cause fatal bleedings. Wehave studied the neuropeptide somatostatin, a major regulatory peptide of the central nervous systemand the digestive tract, for its potential to modulate the host morbidity caused by parasite infection[3,4]. Our recent work has delineated an association between fibrosis and low levels of endogenous somatostatinplasma levels in Schistosoma mansoni infected subjects [5,6]. Based on these results we have exploredthe therapeutic potential of somatostatin in a mouse model of hepatic fibrosis associated with S. Mansoniinfections, as well as suggested that somatostatin could control variceal bleeding [7,8]. TGF beta-1regulates somatostatin mRNA levels and somatostatin secretion at the hypothalamic level, by significantlyreducing both basal and cAMP-induced somatostatin messenger RNA levels and somatostatin secretion. Thisinhibitory effect is dose-and time-dependent, and requires "de novo" protein synthesis. TGF beta-1 reducesthe stability of somatostatin mRNA, although an additional action on the somatostatin transcription cannotbe discarded. The effects of TGF beta-1 in hypothalamic cultures are direct actions on neurons and notmediated by glial cells. We believe that somatostatin - TGF beta-1 interactions may play a regulatoryrole in the outcome of disease progression in man, via its influence on intersystem signaling. Schistosoma-causedliver morbidity is associated with a 10-fold increase in collagen I mRNA as compared to undiseased situations,and TGF beta-1 mRNA levels rise proportionally to the collagen I mRNA levels during disease. In suchconditions of fibrosis, portal hypertension and variceal bleeding, a direct therapeutic effect of somatostatincan be envisaged due to the presence of somatostatin receptors on the hepatic stellate cells (HSC), wherebysomatostatin could reduce collagen I and III synthesis and alpha smooth muscle actin (SMA) expressionin activated HSC. Circulating low levels of somatostatin and consecutively elevated amounts of TGF beta-1in serum or plasma may be a phenomenon in several human diseases or in disease models. Interactions betweenthe endocrine, nervous and immune system create a network that assists man to fight diseases. Cytokines,hormones and neuropeptides communicate between the three systems forming this network. A good understandingof host pathology requires understanding of this network, which appears to function via communicationand/or reciprocal modulation. Cytokines like TGF beta-1 and neuropeptide hormones like somatostatin (amongstsubstance P and vasoactive intestinal peptide) may constitute one arm of such a network that via communicationsignal host pathological changes during disease. References: 1.Peterson M: Circulating transforming growthfactor beta-1: A partial molecular explanation for associations between hypertension, diabetes, obesity,smoking and human disease involving fibrosis. Med Sci Monit, 2005; 11(7): RA229-RA232 2.Chitsulo L, EngelsD, Montresor A, Savioli L: The global status of schistosomiasis and its control. Acta Trop, 2000; 77:41-51 3.Chatterjee S, Van Marck E: Role of somatostatin in schistosomiasis: A basis for immunomodulationin host-parasite interactions? Trop Med Int Health, 2001; 6: 578-81 4.Chatterjee S, Mbaye A, De Man JG,Van Marck E: Does the neuropeptide somatostatin have therapeutic potential against schistosomiasis? TrendsParasitol, 2002; 18: 295-298 5.Chatterjee S, Mbaye A, Van Marck E: Lower levels of the circulating neuropeptidesomatostatin in S. mansoni infected patients may have pathological significance. Trop Med Int Health,2003; 8: 33-36 6.Chatterjee S, Mbaye A, Alfidja AT et al: Circulating levels of the neuropeptide hormonesomatostatin may determine hepatic fibrosis in Schistosoma mansoni. infections. Acta Trop, 2004; 90:191-203 7.Chatterjee S, Van Marck E: Can somatostatin control acute bleeding from oesophageal varicesin Schistosoma mansoni. i patients? BMC Infect Dis, 2004; 4: 58 8.Chatterjee S, Vrolix G, DepoortereI et al: The therapeutic effect of the neuropeptide hormone somatostatin on Schistosoma mansoni. causedliver fibrosis. BMC Infect Dis, 2005; 5: 45.

Keywords: Diabetes Mellitus - blood, Fibrosis, Hypertension - complications, Obesity - complications, Risk Factors, Schistosomiasis - pathology, Smoking - blood, Somatostatin - blood, Transforming Growth Factor beta - blood, Transforming Growth Factor beta1

0 Comments

Editorial

01 January 2023 : Editorial  

Editorial: Current Status of Two Adjuvanted Malaria Vaccines and the World Health Organization (WHO) Strategy to Eradicate Malaria by 2030

Dinah V. Parums
Science Editor, Medical Science Monitor, International Scientific Information, Inc., Melville, NY, USA

DOI: 10.12659/MSM.939357

Med Sci Monit 2023; 29:e939357

SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19

19 January 2023 : Clinical Research  

Evaluation of Health-Related Quality of Life and Mental Health in 729 Medical Students in Indonesia During ...

Med Sci Monit In Press; DOI: 10.12659/MSM.938892  

27 December 2022 : Clinical Research  

Effect of Physiotherapy to Correct Rounded Shoulder Posture in 30 Patients During the COVID-19 Pandemic in ...

Med Sci Monit 2022; 28:e938926

10 December 2022 : Clinical Research  

Retrospective Study to Identify Risk Factors for Severe Disease and Mortality Using the Modified Early Warn...

Med Sci Monit 2022; 28:e938647

In Press

20 Jan 2023 : Clinical Research  

A Study of 42 Partially Edentulous Patients with Single-Crown Restorations and Implants to Compare Bone Los...

Med Sci Monit In Press; DOI: 10.12659/MSM.939225  

20 Jan 2023 : Clinical Research  

Perfusate Neutrophil Gelatinase-Associated Lipocalin, Kidney Injury Molecular-1, Liver-Type Fatty Acid Bind...

Med Sci Monit In Press; DOI: 10.12659/MSM.938758  

19 Jan 2023 : Clinical Research  

Bakri Balloon for Treatment of Postpartum Hemorrhage: A Real-World 2016-2020 Study in 279 Women from a Sing...

Med Sci Monit In Press; DOI: 10.12659/MSM.938823  

19 Jan 2023 : Clinical Research  

Evaluation of Health-Related Quality of Life and Mental Health in 729 Medical Students in Indonesia During ...

Med Sci Monit In Press; DOI: 10.12659/MSM.938892  

Most Viewed Current Articles

13 Nov 2021 : Clinical Research  

Acceptance of COVID-19 Vaccination and Its Associated Factors Among Cancer Patients Attending the Oncology ...

DOI :10.12659/MSM.932788

Med Sci Monit 2021; 27:e932788

30 Dec 2021 : Clinical Research  

Retrospective Study of Outcomes and Hospitalization Rates of Patients in Italy with a Confirmed Diagnosis o...

DOI :10.12659/MSM.935379

Med Sci Monit 2021; 27:e935379

08 Mar 2022 : Review article  

A Review of the Potential Roles of Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Pharmacological Approaches for the Man...

DOI :10.12659/MSM.936292

Med Sci Monit 2022; 28:e936292

01 Jan 2022 : Editorial  

Editorial: Current Status of Oral Antiviral Drug Treatments for SARS-CoV-2 Infection in Non-Hospitalized Pa...

DOI :10.12659/MSM.935952

Med Sci Monit 2022; 28:e935952

Your Privacy

We use cookies to ensure the functionality of our website, to personalize content and advertising, to provide social media features, and to analyze our traffic. If you allow us to do so, we also inform our social media, advertising and analysis partners about your use of our website, You can decise for yourself which categories you you want to deny or allow. Please note that based on your settings not all functionalities of the site are available. View our privacy policy.

Medical Science Monitor eISSN: 1643-3750
Medical Science Monitor eISSN: 1643-3750