Logo Medical Science Monitor

Call: +1.631.470.9640
Mon - Fri 10:00 am - 02:00 pm EST

Contact Us

Logo Medical Science Monitor Logo Medical Science Monitor Logo Medical Science Monitor

01 September 2005

Calpains: enzymes of vision?

Suman Biswas, Frederick Harris, Sarah Dennison, Jai Paul Singh, David Phoenix

Med Sci Monit 2005; 11(9): RA301-310 :: ID: 428466


Globally, cataract accounts for the majority of cases of treatable blindness and the lens opacification associated with cataract is primarily due to the insolubilisation of crystallins, proteins essential for the transparency of the lens. Recent studies have suggested that a major cause of this insolubilisation may be the unregulated proteolysis of crystallins by calpains. These are intracellular cysteine proteases whose activation requires the presence of Ca2+ and elevated levels of lens Ca2+ is a condition strongly associated with cataract. Calpain 2 appears to be the major calpain involved in animal cataractogenesis and the strongest candidate of the calpains for a role in human cataractogenesis but despite intensive study, the mechanism(s) underlying activation of the enzyme both in cataractogenesis and normal lens function are unclear. Recently, the high-resolution structure of calpain 2 was recently solved and a structural basis for the Ca2+-dependence of the enzyme's activity has been putatively established. Other recent studies have suggested that membrane interaction(s) may play a role in lowering the Ca2+-requirements of calpain 2 activation and most recently, strongly supporting this suggestion, several lipid interactive regions in the enzyme have been identified. Here, we review progress in understanding of the role played by calpain 2 in cataractogenesis and the possible use of inhibitors of the enzyme as anti-cataract agents.

Keywords: Cataract - metabolism, Calpain - metabolism, Calcium - metabolism, Crystallins - metabolism, Cysteine Proteinase Inhibitors - therapeutic use, Enzyme Activation, Lens, Crystalline - metabolism, Models, Biological, Models, Molecular, Solubility, Vision, Ocular - physiology



01 July 2022 : Editorial  

Editorial: World Health Organization (WHO) Variants of Concern Lineages Under Monitoring (VOC-LUM) in Response to the Global Spread of Lineages and Sublineages of Omicron, or B.1.1.529, SARS-CoV-2

Dinah V. Parums
Science Editor, Medical Science Monitor, International Scientific Information, Inc., Melville, NY, USA

DOI: 10.12659/MSM.937676

Med Sci Monit 2022; 28:e937676


27 June 2022 : Clinical Research  

Shoulder Injury Related to Vaccine Administration (SIRVA) in 16 Patients Following COVID-19 Vaccination Who...

Med Sci Monit In Press; DOI: 10.12659/MSM.937430  

27 May 2022 : Clinical Research  

Factors Associated with Falls During Hospitalization for Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19)

Med Sci Monit 2022; 28:e936547

In Press

01 Jul 2022 : Clinical Research  

Does Early-Period Patient Dissatisfaction Turn Into Satisfaction Over Time After Total Knee Replacement?

Med Sci Monit In Press; DOI: 10.12659/MSM.936792  

30 Jun 2022 : Laboratory Research  

Bcl-2 19-kDa Interacting Protein 3 (BNIP3)-Mediated Mitophagy Attenuates Intermittent Hypoxia-Induced Human...

Med Sci Monit In Press; DOI: 10.12659/MSM.936760  

30 Jun 2022 : Clinical Research  

Antioxidant System and Ions Concentrations After Femoral Neck and Resurfacing Hip Arthroplasty

Med Sci Monit In Press; DOI: 10.12659/MSM.936335  

28 Jun 2022 : Meta-Analysis  

Urodynamics in Early Diagnosis of Diabetic Bladder Dysfunction in Women: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Med Sci Monit In Press; DOI: 10.12659/MSM.937166  

Most Viewed Current Articles

30 Dec 2021 : Clinical Research  

Retrospective Study of Outcomes and Hospitalization Rates of Patients in Italy with a Confirmed Diagnosis o...

DOI :10.12659/MSM.935379

Med Sci Monit 2021; 27:e935379

08 Mar 2022 : Review article  

A Review of the Potential Roles of Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Pharmacological Approaches for the Man...

DOI :10.12659/MSM.936292

Med Sci Monit 2022; 28:e936292

13 Nov 2021 : Clinical Research  

Acceptance of COVID-19 Vaccination and Its Associated Factors Among Cancer Patients Attending the Oncology ...

DOI :10.12659/MSM.932788

Med Sci Monit 2021; 27:e932788

01 Nov 2020 : Review article  

Long-Term Respiratory and Neurological Sequelae of COVID-19

DOI :10.12659/MSM.928996

Med Sci Monit 2020; 26:e928996

Your Privacy

We use cookies to ensure the functionality of our website, to personalize content and advertising, to provide social media features, and to analyze our traffic. If you allow us to do so, we also inform our social media, advertising and analysis partners about your use of our website, You can decise for yourself which categories you you want to deny or allow. Please note that based on your settings not all functionalities of the site are available. View our privacy policy.

Medical Science Monitor eISSN: 1643-3750
Medical Science Monitor eISSN: 1643-3750