Logo Medical Science Monitor

Call: +1.631.470.9640
Mon - Fri 10:00 am - 02:00 pm EST

Contact Us

Logo Medical Science Monitor Logo Medical Science Monitor Logo Medical Science Monitor

01 June 2006

Apelin and visfatin: unique "beneficial" adipokines upregulated in obesity?

Jerzy Bełtowski

Med Sci Monit 2006; 12(6): RA112-119 :: ID: 451282

Abstract

Recent studies suggest that adipose tissue hormones ("adipokines") are involved in the pathogenesis of various complications of obesity, including hyperlipidemia, diabetes mellitus, arterial hypertension, atherosclerosis, and heart failure. Apelin and visfatin are two recently described adipokines, although they are also synthesized outside adipose tissue. Apelin exists in at least three forms, consisting of 13, 17, or 36 amino acids, all originating from a common 77-amino-acid precursor. In the cardiovascular system, apelin elicits endothelium-dependent, nitric oxide-mediated vasorelaxation and reduces arterial blood pressure. In addition, apelin demonstrates potent and long-lasting positive inotropic activity which is preserved even in injured myocardium and is not accompanied by myocardial hypertrophy. Apelin synthesis in adipocytes is stimulated by insulin, and plasma apelin level markedly increases in obesity associated with insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia. In addition to regulating cardiovascular function, apelin inhibits water intake and vasopressin production. Visfatin, previously recognized as a pre-B cell colony-enhancing factor (PBEF), is abundantly expressed in visceral adipose tissue and is upregulated in some, but not all, animal models of obesity. Preliminary studies suggest that plasma visfatin concentration is also increased in humans with abdominal obesity and/or type 2 diabetes mellitus. Visfatin binds to the insulin receptor at a site distinct from insulin and exerts hypoglycemic effect by reducing glucose release from hepatocytes and stimulating glucose utilization in peripheral tissues. Thus, apelin and visfatin are unique among adipose tissue hormones in that they are upregulated in the obese state and both exert primarily beneficial effects.

Keywords: Cytokines - metabolism, Cardiovascular System - drug effects, Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System - metabolism, Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins - pharmacology, Nicotinamide Phosphoribosyltransferase, Obesity - metabolism, Water-Electrolyte Balance

Add Comment 0 Comments

Editorial

01 May 2024 : Editorial  

Editorial: First Regulatory Approval for Adoptive Cell Therapy with Autologous Tumor-Infiltrating Lymphocytes (TILs) – Lifileucel (Amtagvi)

Dinah V. Parums

DOI: 10.12659/MSM.944927

Med Sci Monit 2024; 30:e944927

In Press

Database Analysis  

Long-Term Prognosis of Patients Undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Intervention: The Impact of Serum Creatini...

Med Sci Monit In Press; DOI: 10.12659/MSM.943063  

Database Analysis  

Maternal Exposure to Environmental Air Pollution and Premature Rupture of Membranes: Evidence from Southern...

Med Sci Monit In Press; DOI: 10.12659/MSM.943601  

Animal Research  

Enhanced Bone Healing Through Systemic Capsaicin Administration: An Experimental Study on Wistar Rats

Med Sci Monit In Press; DOI: 10.12659/MSM.942485  

Clinical Research  

Differential Inflammatory Responses in Adult and Pediatric COVID-19 Patients: Implications for Long-Term Co...

Med Sci Monit In Press; DOI: 10.12659/MSM.944052  

Most Viewed Current Articles

17 Jan 2024 : Review article  

Vaccination Guidelines for Pregnant Women: Addressing COVID-19 and the Omicron Variant

DOI :10.12659/MSM.942799

Med Sci Monit 2024; 30:e942799

0:00

14 Dec 2022 : Clinical Research  

Prevalence and Variability of Allergen-Specific Immunoglobulin E in Patients with Elevated Tryptase Levels

DOI :10.12659/MSM.937990

Med Sci Monit 2022; 28:e937990

0:00

16 May 2023 : Clinical Research  

Electrophysiological Testing for an Auditory Processing Disorder and Reading Performance in 54 School Stude...

DOI :10.12659/MSM.940387

Med Sci Monit 2023; 29:e940387

0:00

01 Jan 2022 : Editorial  

Editorial: Current Status of Oral Antiviral Drug Treatments for SARS-CoV-2 Infection in Non-Hospitalized Pa...

DOI :10.12659/MSM.935952

Med Sci Monit 2022; 28:e935952

0:00

Your Privacy

We use cookies to ensure the functionality of our website, to personalize content and advertising, to provide social media features, and to analyze our traffic. If you allow us to do so, we also inform our social media, advertising and analysis partners about your use of our website, You can decise for yourself which categories you you want to deny or allow. Please note that based on your settings not all functionalities of the site are available. View our privacy policy.

Medical Science Monitor eISSN: 1643-3750
Medical Science Monitor eISSN: 1643-3750