Logo Medical Science Monitor

Call: +1.631.470.9640
Mon - Fri 10:00 am - 02:00 pm EST

Contact Us

Logo Medical Science Monitor Logo Medical Science Monitor Logo Medical Science Monitor

30 March 2007

Comparison of the local anesthetic effects of chlorpheniramine, midazolam, lidocaine, and normal saline after intradermal injection

Mehmet Emin Orhan, Ugur Yüksel, Ferruh Bilgin, Ahmet Dogrul

Med Sci Monit 2007; 13(4): PI7-11 :: ID: 481686


Background: Local anesthetic effects of antihistamines are well known, but have been tested more for diphenhydramine than for chlorpheniramine. Midazolam, a benzodiazepine gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptor agonist, induces spinally mediated analgesia. However, the local anesthetic effects of chlorpheniramine and midazolam have not been adequately studied. The purpose of this study was to assess the infiltration pain and the local anesthetic effects of intradermal chlorpheniramine and midazolam.
Material and methods: This prospective, double-blind study compared the effects of intradermal chlorpheniramine, midazolam, lidocaine, and saline for pain on injection and degree of local anesthesia in adult volunteers. Each received 0.5 ml of the four solutions as intradermal injections in a standardized manner on the volar side of the forearm. Pain on injection and the degree of local anesthesia (tested by pinprick, light touch, and cold) at each site was evaluated on a 0–3 scale at designated time intervals.
Results: Pain on injection of chlorpheniramine was more intense than saline (<i>p</i>=0.047) and lidocaine (<i>p</i><0.001). Midazolam was significantly more painful than lidocaine (<i>p</i><0.001), but not different from saline (<i>p</i>=0.170). Lidocaine caused a significant reduction in sensation to pinprick, touch, and cold during the study period compared with saline and midazolam. Chlorpheniramine also produced a significant reduction in sensation to pinprick and cold until the 120<sup>th</sup> minute and in sensation to touch until the 90<sup>th</sup> minute compared with saline.
Conclusions: Intradermal chlorpheniramine, but not midazolam, produced a local anesthetic effect; however, the duration of this effect of chlorpheniramine was shorter than that of lidocaine.

Keywords: Anesthetics, Local - pharmacology, Anesthesia, Local - methods, Chlorpheniramine - pharmacology, Double-Blind Method, Injections, Intradermal, Lidocaine - pharmacology, Midazolam - pharmacology, Pain Measurement, Prospective Studies, Time Factors

Add Comment 0 Comments

642 7


01 June 2023 : Editorial  

Editorial: Infectious Disease Surveillance Using Artificial Intelligence (AI) and its Role in Epidemic and Pandemic Preparedness

Dinah V. Parums
Science Editor, Medical Science Monitor, International Scientific Information, Inc., Melville, NY, USA

DOI: 10.12659/MSM.941209

Med Sci Monit 2023; 29:e941209


In Press

01 Jun 2023 : Clinical Research  

Root Canal Numbers and Configurations in 1080 Permanent Canine Teeth in 270 Saudi Subjects Using Cone-Beam ...

Med Sci Monit In Press; DOI: 10.12659/MSM.940472  

01 Jun 2023 : Clinical Research  

Internal Orifice Alloy Closure: A New Procedure for Treatment of Perianal Fistulizing Crohn’s Disease

Med Sci Monit In Press; DOI: 10.12659/MSM.940873  

01 Jun 2023 : Clinical Research  

Effectiveness of Needle Aspiration versus Surgical Excision for Symptomatic Synovial Cysts of the Hip: A Si...

Med Sci Monit In Press; DOI: 10.12659/MSM.940187  

01 Jun 2023 : Clinical Research  

Influence of Insulin Resistance on Diabetes Nephropathy

Med Sci Monit In Press; DOI: 10.12659/MSM.939482  

Most Viewed Current Articles

13 Nov 2021 : Clinical Research  

Acceptance of COVID-19 Vaccination and Its Associated Factors Among Cancer Patients Attending the Oncology ...

DOI :10.12659/MSM.932788

Med Sci Monit 2021; 27:e932788


30 Dec 2021 : Clinical Research  

Retrospective Study of Outcomes and Hospitalization Rates of Patients in Italy with a Confirmed Diagnosis o...

DOI :10.12659/MSM.935379

Med Sci Monit 2021; 27:e935379

08 Mar 2022 : Review article  

A Review of the Potential Roles of Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Pharmacological Approaches for the Man...

DOI :10.12659/MSM.936292

Med Sci Monit 2022; 28:e936292

01 Jan 2022 : Editorial  

Editorial: Current Status of Oral Antiviral Drug Treatments for SARS-CoV-2 Infection in Non-Hospitalized Pa...

DOI :10.12659/MSM.935952

Med Sci Monit 2022; 28:e935952

Your Privacy

We use cookies to ensure the functionality of our website, to personalize content and advertising, to provide social media features, and to analyze our traffic. If you allow us to do so, we also inform our social media, advertising and analysis partners about your use of our website, You can decise for yourself which categories you you want to deny or allow. Please note that based on your settings not all functionalities of the site are available. View our privacy policy.

Medical Science Monitor eISSN: 1643-3750
Medical Science Monitor eISSN: 1643-3750