Logo Medical Science Monitor

Call: +1.631.470.9640
Mon - Fri 10:00 am - 02:00 pm EST

Contact Us

Logo Medical Science Monitor Logo Medical Science Monitor Logo Medical Science Monitor

Causes and pathomechanisms of oesophageal varices development

Karl-Joseph Paquet

Med Sci Monit 2000; 6(5): CR915-928 :: ID: 507952


Portal hypertension is a common clinical syndrome with chronic liver diseases and is characterised by a pathological increase in portal pressure. Moreover, portal hypertension is associated with increased portal blood flow. Increased vascular resistance in portal hypertension is because of an increase in both intrahepatic and portosystemic collateral resistance. Chronic elevations in systemic and splanchnic blood flow have been documented as key elements of hyperdynamic circulatory state of hypertensive animals and humans. Peripheral vasodilatation initiates the development of the classic profile of decreased systemic elevated splanchnic blood flow and elevated cardia index that characterises this state. Portosystemic collaterals develop as a result of portal hypertension. This is the central pathophysiological event that leads to bleeding from oesophagogastric varices and portosystemic encephalopathy. Collateral vessels respond to various vasoconstrictors and vasodilators.- Varices in the distal 5 cm of the distal oesophagus are easily identified by endoscopy because of their superficial location in the lamina propria and therefore are must apt to bleed and why the current practise of endoscopic therapy is likely to be successful in obliterating the varices. In patients with oesophageal varices the dilated deep intrinsic veins displace the superficial venous plexus, assume a supepitheal position and are endoscopically visible as teleangiectasia, cherry red spots, red colour signs, hemocystic spots, red wale markings or varices on varices. As alternative endoscopic way of treatment the paravariceal injection has been propagated by our group thus preserving the pathophysiologic collaterals and preventing early new formation of collaterals and rebleeding. Pathophysiologically the concept of erosion has been abandoned and replaced by the explosion theory: bleeding probably occurs when the expanding force by pressure and flow can no longer be counter-balanced by the variceal wall tension; at this point the varices rupture and bleed. When the varix distension has increased, the radius has increased and the wall thickness decreased. Thus early diagnosis of patients with a high tendency to bleed can easily be made by endoscopy, measuring portal and / or oesophageal-variceal pressure and characteristising the chronic liver disease according to the Child-Pugh-classification.

Keywords: oesophagogastric varices, treatment, development, pathophysiological background, pathomechanism



12 September 2022 : Editorial  

Editorial: Treatment with Dual Incretin Receptor Agonists to Maintain Normal Glucose Levels May Also Maintain Normal Weight and Control Metabolic Dysfunction-Associated Fatty Liver Disease (MAFLD)

Ana Luisa Ordóñez-Vázquez, Sofía Murúa Beltrán-Gall, Shreya C. Pal, Nahum Méndez-Sánchez
Liver Research Unit, Medica Sur Clinic Foundation, Mexico City, Mexico

DOI: 10.12659/MSM.938365

Med Sci Monit 2022; 28:e938365


16 September 2022 : Review article  

Effects of Physiotherapy on Rehabilitation and Quality of Life in Patients Hospitalized for COVID-19: A Rev...

Med Sci Monit In Press; DOI: 10.12659/MSM.938141  

12 September 2022 : Clinical Research  

Effect of Vitamin D Concentration on Course of COVID-19

Med Sci Monit In Press; DOI: 10.12659/MSM.937741  

In Press

26 Sep 2022 : Clinical Research  

Distribution and Determinants of Plasma Homocysteine Levels in a Preconception Population: A Retrospective ...

Med Sci Monit In Press; DOI: 10.12659/MSM.937987  

26 Sep 2022 : Clinical Research  

Latency and Interpeak Interval Values of Auditory Brainstem Response in 73 Individuals with Normal Hearing

Med Sci Monit In Press; DOI: 10.12659/MSM.937847  

23 Sep 2022 : Review article  

A Review of the Role of Ultrasound Radiomics and Its Application and Limitations in the Investigation of Th...

Med Sci Monit In Press; DOI: 10.12659/MSM.937738  

23 Sep 2022 : Review article  

Review of the Long-Term Outcomes of Guided Bone Regeneration and Autologous Bone Block Augmentation for Ver...

Med Sci Monit In Press; DOI: 10.12659/MSM.937433  

Most Viewed Current Articles

30 Dec 2021 : Clinical Research  

Retrospective Study of Outcomes and Hospitalization Rates of Patients in Italy with a Confirmed Diagnosis o...

DOI :10.12659/MSM.935379

Med Sci Monit 2021; 27:e935379

13 Nov 2021 : Clinical Research  

Acceptance of COVID-19 Vaccination and Its Associated Factors Among Cancer Patients Attending the Oncology ...

DOI :10.12659/MSM.932788

Med Sci Monit 2021; 27:e932788

08 Mar 2022 : Review article  

A Review of the Potential Roles of Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Pharmacological Approaches for the Man...

DOI :10.12659/MSM.936292

Med Sci Monit 2022; 28:e936292

01 Nov 2020 : Review article  

Long-Term Respiratory and Neurological Sequelae of COVID-19

DOI :10.12659/MSM.928996

Med Sci Monit 2020; 26:e928996

Your Privacy

We use cookies to ensure the functionality of our website, to personalize content and advertising, to provide social media features, and to analyze our traffic. If you allow us to do so, we also inform our social media, advertising and analysis partners about your use of our website, You can decise for yourself which categories you you want to deny or allow. Please note that based on your settings not all functionalities of the site are available. View our privacy policy.

Medical Science Monitor eISSN: 1643-3750
Medical Science Monitor eISSN: 1643-3750