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24 April 2011

Anxiety, depression and methods of stress coping in patients with nicotine dependence syndrome

Tadeusz PietrasABCDE, Andrzej WitusikBCD, Michał PanekABCDE, Janusz SzemrajEFG, Paweł GórskiEF

DOI: 10.12659/MSM.881767

Med Sci Monit 2011; 17(5): CR272-276

Abstract

Background: Nicotinism is the most common addiction in Poland. Nicotine dependence is the cause of numerous behavioral diseases, including ischemic heart disease, neoplasms and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. A question arises whether a tendency to anxiety and depressive reactions, as well as the strategies of coping with stressful situations, is involved in the clinical presentation of this addiction.
Material/Methods: The study was conducted in a group of 88 nicotine addicts without serious systemic comorbidities and in 84 healthy subjects. All the participants were assessed with Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) and the Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations (CISS).
Results: The mean intensity of anxiety as a trait and anxiety as a state, as well as its level, were found to differ between the groups (Sten 6.28±1.52 and 4.86±1.05, p=0,0000 for the trait, and 6.09±1.25 and 4.92±1.29, p=0.0000, for the state, respectively). Similarly, depression was demonstrated to be more intensive in nicotine addicts than in healthy subjects (12.76 points ±4.77 vs. 10.76±4.83, p=0.007). Among the 5 scales assessed by CISS, smokers demonstrated higher prevalence of emotion-oriented coping than controls (standard 9 6.27±1.70 in smokers vs. 5.67±1.57, p=0.019) and involvement in distracting activities (5.84±1.48 vs. 5.28±1.46, p=0.014).
Conclusions: The obtained results indicate that anxiety and depression, as well as differences in coping with stress situations, distinguish nicotine addicts from non-smokers.

Keywords: Stress, Psychological - complications, Depression - psychology, Demography, Anxiety - psychology, Adaptation, Psychological, Tobacco Use Disorder - psychology

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Medical Science Monitor eISSN: 1643-3750
Medical Science Monitor eISSN: 1643-3750