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25 June 2016 : Clinical Research  

Synovial Fluid Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor Levels Correlate with Severity of Self-Reported Pain in Knee Osteoarthritis Patients

Pei-liang ZhangBE, Jun LiuAE, Li XuCF, Yan SunBD, Xue-cheng SunA

DOI: 10.12659/MSM.895704

Med Sci Monit 2016; 22:2182-2186


BACKGROUND: Inflammation is considered as one of the main pathogeneses in OA-induced pain. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a well known pro-inflammatory cytokine. We aimed to determine whether MIF levels in serum and synovial fluid (SF) are associated with severity of OA-induced pain.

MATERIAL AND METHODS: We recruited 226 patients with knee OA and 106 controls. Self-reported pain severity of OA patients was evaluated using the Western Ontario McMaster University Osteoarthritis (WOMAC) pain scores. MIF levels were detected using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).

RESULTS: OA patients had similar serum MIF levels compared to controls (11.93 [5.68–18.10] vs. 10.06 [6.60–14.61] ng/ml, P>0.05). In OA patients, MIF levels in SF were dramatically lower compared to paired serum samples (3.39 [1.87–5.89] vs. 11.93 [5.68–18.10] ng/ml, P<0.01). MIF levels in SF were significantly correlated with WOMAC pain scores (r=0.237, P<0.001), but MIF levels in serum had no significant correlation with WOMAC pain scores (r=0.009, P=0.898).

CONCLUSIONS: MIF levels in SF, but not in serum, were independently associated with the severity of self-reported pain in OA patients. The inhibition of MIF signaling pathways may be a novel therapeutic approach for ameliorating OA-induced pain.

Keywords: Case-Control Studies, Biomarkers - blood, Intramolecular Oxidoreductases - metabolism, Macrophage Migration-Inhibitory Factors - metabolism, Osteoarthritis, Knee - metabolism, Pain - metabolism, self report, Severity of Illness Index, Synovial Fluid - metabolism



01 October 2022 : Editorial  

Editorial: Rebound COVID-19 and Cessation of Antiviral Treatment for SARS-CoV-2 with Paxlovid and Molnupiravir

Dinah V. Parums
Science Editor, Medical Science Monitor, International Scientific Information, Inc., Melville, NY, USA

DOI: 10.12659/MSM.938532

Med Sci Monit 2022; 28:e938532


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Medical Science Monitor eISSN: 1643-3750
Medical Science Monitor eISSN: 1643-3750