21 April 2016 : Clinical Research
Med Sci Monit 2016; 22:1334-1341
BACKGROUND: Depression is one of the most common mental disorders and often co-exists with somatic diseases. The most probable cause of comorbidity is a generalized inflammatory process that occurs in both depression and somatic diseases. Matrix metalloproteinases MMPs play a role in modulating inflammation and their impact in many inflammatory diseases has been investigated. The purpose of this study was to evaluate gene expression for selected polymorphisms of MMP-2 (C-735T), MMP-7 (A-181G), and MMP-9 (T-1702A, C1562T), which have been confirmed to participate in development of depression, and TIMP-2 (G-418C, tissue inhibitor of MMP). Activity variability of pro-MMP-2 and pro-MMP-9 was measured in a group of people with depression and a group of healthy individuals.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: The examined population comprised 142 individuals suffering from depression and 100 individuals who formed a control group (CG). Designations were carried out for MMP-2 (C-735T), MMP-7 (A-181G), MMP-9 (T-1702A, C1562T), and TIMP-2 (G-418C).
RESULTS: For all examined and tested MMPs and for TIMP-2, gene expression at the mRNA level was higher in patients with depression than in the CG. Similar results were recorded for gene expression at the protein level, while expression on the protein level for TIMP-2 was higher in the CG. Change in activity of MMP-2 and pro-MMP-2 was statistically more significant in the group with depression. The opposite result was recorded for MMP-9 and pro-MMP-9, in which the change in activity was statistically more significant in the CG.
CONCLUSIONS: Changes in MMPs and TIMP expression may be a common element in, or perhaps even a marker for, recurrent depressive disorders and somatic diseases.
Keywords: Depression - genetics, Case-Control Studies, Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic, Matrix Metalloproteinase 2 - metabolism, Matrix Metalloproteinase 7 - metabolism, Matrix Metalloproteinase 9 - metabolism, Matrix Metalloproteinases - metabolism, RNA, Messenger - metabolism, Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-2 - metabolism, young adult
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