23 June 2016 : Animal Research
Nuclear Factor Erythroid 2-Related Factor 2 (Nrf2) Mediates Neuroprotection in Traumatic Brain Injury at Least in Part by Inactivating MicrogliaGang WuABCDEF, Zongying LiuBCDEF
Med Sci Monit 2016; 22:2161-2166
BACKGROUND: Microglial activation has been reported to be involved in traumatic brain injury (TBI). Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) plays a significant role in protecting against TBI-induced secondary brain injury. However, the exact mechanism is not clearly understood. The present study aimed to explore whether Nrf2 protects against TBI partly by regulating microglia function.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: Microglia cells were isolated from C57BL/6 mouse brains (postnatal day 1–3). The expression of Nrf2 was suppressed by transfection with Nrf2-specific small interfering RNA (siRNA), and overexpressed by transfections with pcDNA3.1-Nrf2. The expression of Nrf2 was confirmed by real-time PCR and Western blotting. After transfection, cell viability, phagocytic ability, and the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-6) were determined by 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5- diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) colorimetric assay, phagocytosis assay, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), respectively.
RESULTS: mRNA and protein expression levels of Nrf2 were significantly reduced by transfection with Nrf2-specific siRNA (both P<0.05) but were elevated by transfection with pcDNA3.1-Nrf2 (both P<0.01). The cell viability, phagocytic ability, and the expression of TNF-α and IL-6 were all significantly reduced by overexpression of Nrf2 but were significantly increased by silencing of Nrf2 compared with the control group.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that Nrf2 protects against TBI, at least part by regulating microglia function.
Keywords: Apoptosis - physiology, Brain Injuries, Traumatic - pathology, Cell Survival - physiology, Cytokines - metabolism, Interleukin-6 - metabolism, Mice, Inbred C57BL, Microglia - pathology, NF-E2-Related Factor 2 - metabolism, Neuroprotection - physiology, Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha - metabolism
15 August 2022 : EditorialEditorial: The Metabolic (Dysfunction) Associated Fatty Liver Disease (MAFLD)-Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) Debate: A Forced Consensus and The Risk of a World Divide
Med Sci Monit 2022; 28:e938080
12 Aug 2022 : Clinical ResearchRisk Factors and Pathogen Spectrum in Continuous Ambulatory Peritoneal Dialysis-Associated Peritonitis: A S...
Med Sci Monit In Press; DOI: 10.12659/MSM.937112
11 Aug 2022 : Meta-AnalysisOptimal Surgical Treatment Method for Anterior Cruciate Ligament Rupture: Results from a Network Meta-Analysis
Med Sci Monit In Press; DOI: 10.12659/MSM.937118
10 Aug 2022 : Review articleProgrammed Cell Death in Diabetic Nephropathy: A Review of Apoptosis, Autophagy, and Necroptosis
Med Sci Monit In Press; DOI: 10.12659/MSM.937766
Most Viewed Current Articles
30 Dec 2021 : Clinical ResearchRetrospective Study of Outcomes and Hospitalization Rates of Patients in Italy with a Confirmed Diagnosis o...
Med Sci Monit 2021; 27:e935379
13 Nov 2021 : Clinical ResearchAcceptance of COVID-19 Vaccination and Its Associated Factors Among Cancer Patients Attending the Oncology ...
Med Sci Monit 2021; 27:e932788
08 Mar 2022 : Review articleA Review of the Potential Roles of Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Pharmacological Approaches for the Man...
Med Sci Monit 2022; 28:e936292