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21 November 2016 : Clinical Research  

Determination of Genotoxic Effects of Hookah Smoking by Micronucleus and Chromosome Aberration Methods

Ebru Derici EkerABEFG, Hayri KoyuncuBD, Nefise Özlen ŞahinAD, Altan YükselCD, Mehmet BerközCD, Songul Budak DilerAC, Sema Altan AkgülF

DOI: 10.12659/MSM.898593

Med Sci Monit 2016; 22:4490-4494

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Use of a hookah (a type of water pipe) is a traditional way of smoking tobacco, particularly in the Middle East. In Turkey, its popularity has been growing in recent years, especially among young people. It is known that cigarette smoking has genotoxic effects and causes mutations, but no comprehensive study has been done on the genotoxic effects of hookah usage, particularly in Turkey.

MATERIAL AND METHODS: We collected peripheral blood/buccal smear samples from 30 subjects who did not smoke cigarettes but who regularly smoke a hookah an average of 2 times per week, and from 30 control subjects who had never smoked cigarettes or a hookah. Chromosome analyses were performed on the samples obtained from peripheral blood of each individual, 25 metaphase plaques were counted for each, and chromosome/chromatid breakage/gap parameters were evaluated. Micronucleus analysis was done on buccal smear samples and micronucleus/binucleus parameters were investigated by counting 2000 cells of each individual.

RESULTS: Chromosome breakage ratios were found to be 0.64±0.86 and 0.46±0.71 in the study and control groups, respectively, while chromatid breakage ratios were 0.53±0.83 and 0.53±0.71; fragment ratios were 0.82±1.24 and 0.21±0.49 (p<0.05); and gap ratios were 0.57±0.83 and 0.18±0.53 (p<0.05), respectively. Micronucleus ratio was 6.03±2.06 and 4.43±2.27 (p<0.05) in the study and control groups, respectively, and binucleus ratios were 8.53±3.23 and 12.15±5.18, respectively (p<0.05).

CONCLUSIONS: Results of our study reveal significant statistical differences between the individuals who smoked hookah and those who did not in terms of fragment, gap, micronucleus, and binucleus parameters, suggesting that smoking a hookah may cause genotoxic effects.

Keywords: Chromosome Aberrations, Adolescent, DNA Damage, Micronuclei, Chromosome-Defective, Mutagenicity Tests - methods, Smoke - adverse effects, Smoking - genetics, Turkey, young adult

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Medical Science Monitor eISSN: 1643-3750
Medical Science Monitor eISSN: 1643-3750