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30 December 2016 : Animal Research  

Chemical Chaperone 4-Phenylbutyric Acid Reduces Cardiac Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury by Alleviating Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Oxidative Stress

Lian Jian1ABCEF, Yuan Lu1BCEF, Shan Lu2BCDEF, Chengzhi Lu1ADFG*

DOI: 10.12659/MSM.898623

Med Sci Monit 2016; 22:5218-5227

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death in many countries and myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury is the cause of many serious heart diseases. Recent reports suggested that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is associated with the progress of ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. In a previous study, we illustrated that 4-phenylbutyric acid (4-PBA) reduces I/R-induced cell death in vitro through inhibiting the ER stress-initiated cell apoptosis. In the present study we investigated whether 4-PBA improves heart function in isolated rat hearts subjected to I/R and elucidated the potential mechanisms involved in 4-PBA-induced cardioprotective effects.

MATERIAL AND METHODS: The isolated rat hearts were subjected to global ischemia and reperfusion in the absence or presence of 4-PBA. Hemodynamic parameters (LVSP, LVEDP, ±dP/dtmax, and HR) were monitored and histopathological examination was applied. The biomarkers related to oxidative stress were detected by LDH, ROS, MDA, CK, SOD, and GSH-Px kits. A TUNEL apoptosis assay kit was used to detect apoptosis. The expression levels of ER stress and apoptosis proteins were evaluated by Western blotting.

RESULTS: We found that 4-PBA (5 mM, 10 mM) pretreatment significantly attenuated cardiac dysfunction and depressed oxidative stress induced by I/R. Moreover, I/R activated the ER stress proteins Grp78 and PERK, which are all decreased by 4-PBA. 4-PBA pretreatment also inhibited the expression of CHOP, Caspase-12, and Bax, reduced the phosphorylation of JNK, and enhanced the expression of anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2.

CONCLUSIONS: We elucidated the significant protective effects of 4-PBA against I/R injuries by inhibition of ER stress, oxidative stress, and their associated apoptosis.

Keywords: Antioxidants - metabolism, Cardiotonic Agents - pharmacology, Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress - drug effects, Heart - physiopathology, Heart Function Tests - drug effects, Myocardial Reperfusion Injury - physiopathology, Oxidative Stress - drug effects, Phenylbutyrates - therapeutic use, Signal Transduction - drug effects

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Medical Science Monitor eISSN: 1643-3750
Medical Science Monitor eISSN: 1643-3750