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16 May 2018 : Animal Research  

Lipopolysaccharide Exposure Alleviates Asthma in Mice by Regulating Th1/Th2 and Treg/Th17 Balance

Fengxia Ding1ABCDE, Zhou Fu1ABCDE*, Bo Liu2ABCDEF

DOI: 10.12659/MSM.905202

Med Sci Monit 2018; 24: ANS3220-3229

Abstract

BACKGROUND: It is generally believed that endotoxin exposure exacerbates risk of developing asthmatic symptoms. However, recent studies have indicated that prior bacterial exposure may prevent future symptoms of asthma. Here, we evaluated the influence of pre-exposure to different concentrations of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to subsequent ovalbumin (OVA) allergen sensitization and challenge.

MATERIAL AND METHODS: Four-week-old Balb/c mice were treated intranasally with varying concentrations of LPS (1 ug, 10 ug, and 100 ug) or sterile PBS for 10 days, then 2 weeks later they were exposed to OVA. Both the molecular and functional airway responses to OVA administration were assessed following prior exposure to different doses of LPS or controls. Additionally, the Th1/Th2 and Treg/Th17 balance was measured.

RESULTS: Airway responsiveness and immune cell recruitment in the bronchoalveolar lavage (BALF) were decreased in animals exposed to a low dose of LPS (1 ug) treatment compared with the asthma group. Moderate-dose (10 ug) and high-dose (100 ug) LPS administration showed no differences from controls. Further, low-dose LPS (1 ug) exposure was associated with increased Th1 cytokines, T-bet, Treg cytokine (IL-10, TGF-β), and Foxp3 expression, but decreased Th2 cytokines (IL-4,5,13), GATA3, Th17, and ROR-gt expression compared with the asthma group. Finally, higher numbers of CD4+CD25+Foxp3+Treg cells, and CD4+INF-γ+T cells, and lower CD4+IL-4+T cells and CD4+IL-17+T cells were observed in the low-dose LPS-treated groups compared to controls.

CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that prior exposure to low doses of LPS may protect from OVA-induced airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) and histopathologic changes through regulation of the Th1/Th2 and Treg/Th17 balance.

Keywords: Anti-Asthmatic Agents, Antigens, Differentiation, T-Lymphocyte, Endotoxins

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Medical Science Monitor eISSN: 1643-3750
Medical Science Monitor eISSN: 1643-3750