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19 February 2018 : Laboratory Research  

Combined Treatment with Valproic Acid and 5-Aza-2’-Deoxycytidine Synergistically Inhibits Human Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma Growth and Migration

Wenjin Xi1ABCDEF, Xu Chen1BCEF, Jinbo Sun2BF, Wei Wang1BF, Yi Huo1BF, Guoxu Zheng1CF, Jieheng Wu1CD, Yufang Li3BF, Angang Yang1AG*, Tao Wang4AEG

DOI: 10.12659/MSM.906020

Med Sci Monit 2018; 24: LBR1034-1043

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Histone acetylation and DNA methylation are important mammalian epigenetic modifications that participate in the regulation of gene expression. Because dysregulation of histone deacetylase and DNA methyltransferases are hallmarks of malignancy, they have become promising therapeutic targets. In this study, we explored the anti-tumor activity of valproic acid (VPA), a histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi) and 5-Aza-2’-deoxycytidine (5-Aza), an inhibitor of DNA methyltransferases, on renal cell carcinoma (RCC) cell lines 786-O and 769-P.

MATERIAL AND METHODS: The cell proliferation was detected by xCELLigence RTCA DP Instrument, viability by CCK8 assay, cell apoptosis and cell cycle by flow cytometry, and cell migration by wound healing assay, Transwell assay and xCELLigence RTCA DP Instrument.

RESULTS: We discovered that VPA and 5-Aza could individually induce decreased viability and have an inhibitory effect on the proliferation of 786-O and 769-P cells. This anti-growth effect was more pronounced when the cells were treated with both VPA and 5-Aza. The combination of VPA and 5-Aza also elicited more apoptosis and produced more cell cycle arrest in the G1 phase for both cell lines. On the other hand, treatment of RCC cells with VPA, 5-Aza, or a combination of both resulted in slow wound healing and impaired migration.

CONCLUSIONS: These findings clearly demonstrated that VPA combined with 5-Aza could significantly increase anti-RCC effects by inhibiting cellular proliferation, inducing apoptosis, promoting cell cycle arrest and prohibiting the migration of human RCC cells.

Keywords: Azacitidine, Carcinoma, Renal Cell, Valproic Acid

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Medical Science Monitor eISSN: 1643-3750
Medical Science Monitor eISSN: 1643-3750