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27 October 2018 : Clinical Research  

Arterial Thrombosis Is Accompanied by Elevated Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase (MAPK) and Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) Expression via Toll-Like Receptor 4 (TLR-4) Activation by S100A8/A9

Xiaonan Chen1ABCDEF, Ting Tao1ABDF, Hongyan Wang1BC, Hongyu Zhao1BC, Lin Lu23ABD, Fang Wu1ABDFG*

DOI: 10.12659/MSM.909641

Med Sci Monit 2018; 24: CLR7673-7681


BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to determine the involvement of S100A8/A9 in the development of arterial thrombosis.

MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 303 patients were enrolled in this study, with 110 having acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and 110 having coronary heart disease (CHD), and 83 subjects served as healthy blood donors. The concentrations of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR-4), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and S100A8/A9 protein were determined in the sera of the participants and in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) derived from a rat carotid artery thrombosis model and in human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs). The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) inhibitor SB203580 and the TLR-4 blocker CLI-095 were used to investigate the role of the TLR-4-MAPK-COX2 signaling axis in thrombosis.

RESULTS: The levels of COX-2, TLR-4, and S100A8/A9 in the sera of patients with ACS and CHD were significantly higher than in healthy controls (P<0.05). S100A8/A9 expression was significantly correlated with TLR-4 and COX-2 in the ACS group and with TLR-4 in the CHD group. In the rat carotid thrombosis model, the expressions of TLR-4, COX-2, and p-p38 MAPK significantly increased until 14 days after thrombosis induction, whereas S100A8/A9 expression increased until day 7, but then decreased. Administration of SB203580 to rats reduced COX-2 expression in PBMCs after thrombosis induction, and incubation of HAECs with CLI-095 reduced their p-p38 MAPK and COX-2 response to S100A8/A9 stimulation.

CONCLUSIONS: S100A8/A9 is upregulated after blood vessel injury and is enhanced in combination with TLR-4 COX-2 induction via p38 MAPK activation.

Keywords: Cyclooxygenase 2, Inflammation Mediators, Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases, Thrombosis, Toll-Like Receptor 4



01 October 2022 : Editorial  

Editorial: Rebound COVID-19 and Cessation of Antiviral Treatment for SARS-CoV-2 with Paxlovid and Molnupiravir

Dinah V. Parums
Science Editor, Medical Science Monitor, International Scientific Information, Inc., Melville, NY, USA

DOI: 10.12659/MSM.938532

Med Sci Monit 2022; 28:e938532


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Medical Science Monitor eISSN: 1643-3750
Medical Science Monitor eISSN: 1643-3750