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04 November 2018 : Clinical Research  

Correlation Between Delivery Mode and Pelvic Organ Prolapse Evaluated by Four-Dimensional Pelvic Floor Ultrasonography

Yi-Cheng Zhu1ABCDEF, Shu-Hao Deng1BCD, Quan Jiang1BCD, Yuan Zhang1ABCDG*

DOI: 10.12659/MSM.911343

Med Sci Monit 2018; 24: CLR7891-7897


BACKGROUND: This study explored symptoms and signs of pelvic organ prolapse (POP) evaluated by 4-dimensional pelvic floor ultrasonography and analyzed the relationship between delivery mode and POP.

MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 578 women who underwent 4-dimensional transperineal ultrasound were enrolled in this study. Obstetric history together with other clinical information were gathered from clinical questionnaires and gynecologists. Patients were thereafter classified into 4 groups: women with normal vaginal delivery, women with forceps delivery, women with cesarean, and nullipara women. We assessed symptoms and signs of POP among these 4 groups by use of 2 evaluation methods. The first method was clinical assessment applying International Continence Society (ICS) pelvic organ prolapse quantification (POP-Q). The second method was the use of ultrasonography in the quantification of anterior, middle, and posterior compartment prolapse.

RESULTS: Nulliparae women exhibited the lowest probability of POP (POP-Q: cystocele of 15.6%, uterine prolapse of 11.1%, rectocele of 20.0%; ultrasound exam: 6.7%, 8.9%, 13.3% in sequence), while women with forceps delivery had the highest probability of POP (POP-Q: 59.6%, 50.8%, 63.2% in sequence; ultrasound exam: 45.6%, 52.6%, 42.1% in sequence). Regarding the correlation between POP and delivery mode, the adjusted odds ratio was 2.40 (95%CI: 1.301~4.590) and 3.20 (95%CI: 1.651~6.121) in the normal vaginal delivery group and forceps group, respectively, compared with the cesarean group.

CONCLUSIONS: Four-dimensional pelvic floor ultrasonography can be used as a preferred method in evaluating POP. Regarding the relationship between delivery mode and POP, there is a significant correlation between vaginal delivery and POP.

Keywords: Delivery, Obstetric, pelvic organ prolapse, Ultrasonography



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Ana Luisa Ordóñez-Vázquez, Sofía Murúa Beltrán-Gall, Shreya C. Pal, Nahum Méndez-Sánchez
Liver Research Unit, Medica Sur Clinic Foundation, Mexico City, Mexico

DOI: 10.12659/MSM.938365

Med Sci Monit 2022; 28:e938365


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Medical Science Monitor eISSN: 1643-3750
Medical Science Monitor eISSN: 1643-3750